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Bureau of Reclamation - História

Bureau of Reclamation - História


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Bureau of Reclamation - totalmente estabelecido em 1923, parte do Departamento do Interior. A agência constrói e opera projetos de abastecimento de água com o objetivo de recuperar terras áridas e semi-áridas nos estados do oeste. A maioria dos projetos tem vários propósitos, incluindo: conservação, armazenamento e irrigação de água; geração de energia hidrelétrica; controle de inundação; abastecimento de água municipal e industrial; navegação; e recreação ao ar livre.

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Teton Dam

o Teton Dam era uma barragem de terra no rio Teton em Idaho, Estados Unidos. Foi construído pelo Bureau of Reclamation, uma das oito agências federais autorizadas a construir barragens. [3] Localizado na parte oriental do estado, entre os condados de Fremont e Madison, sofreu uma falha catastrófica em 5 de junho de 1976, quando estava enchendo pela primeira vez.

O colapso da barragem resultou na morte de onze pessoas [4] e 13.000 cabeças de gado. A barragem custou cerca de US $ 100 milhões para ser construída e o governo federal pagou mais de US $ 300 milhões em reivindicações relacionadas ao seu fracasso. As estimativas de danos totais variam de até US $ 2 bilhões. [5] A barragem não foi reconstruída.


Registros do Bureau de Recuperação (Grupo de Registros 115)

Estabelecido: No Ministério do Interior, por Despacho de Secretariado 3.064, de 18 de maio de 1981, que redesenhou o Serviço de Recursos Hídricos e Energéticos.

Agências predecessoras:

No Departamento do Interior:

  • Serviço de recuperação, levantamento geológico (1902-7)
  • Serviço de recuperação (1907-23)
  • Bureau of Reclamation (1923-79)
  • Serviço de Recursos Hídricos e Energéticos (1979-81)

Funções: Planeja, constrói e opera obras de irrigação em 17 estados contíguos do oeste e no Havaí. Constrói e opera usinas hidrelétricas. Distribui energia elétrica e energia gerada em determinadas usinas, reservatórios, projetos e barragens.

Encontrar ajudas: Edward E. Hill, comp., Inventário Preliminar dos Registros do Bureau of Reclamation, suplemento PI 109 (1958) na edição de microfichas dos Arquivos Nacionais de inventários preliminares.

Registros Relacionados: Registre cópias das publicações do Bureau of Reclamation em RG 287, Publicações do Governo dos EUA.

115.2 REGISTROS DE WASHINGTON, DC, ESCRITÓRIOS ADMINISTRATIVOS
1891-1987

História: Serviço de recuperação estabelecido no Departamento do Interior, sob a jurisdição da Divisão de Hidrografia do Levantamento Geológico, 8 de julho de 1902, para administrar o fundo de recuperação estabelecido pela Lei de Recuperação, também conhecida como Lei de Newlands (32 Stat. 388), 17 de junho de 1902, que separou receitas da venda de terras públicas para financiar projetos de irrigação em regiões áridas e semiáridas do oeste dos Estados Unidos. Separated from the Geological Survey, 9 de março de 1907. Com o status de bureau como Bureau of Reclamation, 20 de junho de 1923. Serviço de recursos de água e energia redesignado pela Secretaria da Ordem 3042, 6 de novembro de 1979. Nome revertido para Bureau of Reclamation, 1981. VEJA 115,1.

Registros Textuais (em Denver): Correspondência geral administrativa e de projeto, 1902-45 (1.917 pés), com índices e uma cópia em microfilme de um guia de classificação de arquivo. Histórias de projetos e recursos, relatórios de conselhos de engenharia, relatórios para o Conselho de Engenheiros do Exército, relatórios de operação e manutenção de projetos e outros relatórios especiais, 1902-60. Relatórios resumidos de custos e declarações narrativas relativas à construção em locais de projetos de recuperação, 1916-49. Arquivos de retirada e restauração de terras públicas, 1891-1945. Arquivo de correspondência de pessoal, 1902-40. Registros relacionados à supervisão do escritório e à administração das atividades do Civilian Conservation Corps, 1934-43. Arquivos de história legislativa, 1945-68. Cópias de propostas de legislação para o 98º e 99º Congressos relacionadas a questões de água, energia ou conservação, 1983-86.

Mapas (1.932 itens): Região oeste dos Estados Unidos, mostrando os limites regionais do Bureau of Reclamation, precipitação e locais de irrigação federal e projetos hidrelétricos, 1934-87 (26 itens). Bacias hidrográficas, incluindo Colorado, Columbia, Gila, Missouri e Yakima, mostrando a classificação de terras, áreas irrigáveis ​​e planos de irrigação e desenvolvimento de barragens propostos, 1908-50 (40 itens). Projetos de recuperação específicos (organizados em ordem alfabética), incluindo planos detalhados do Projeto da Bacia do Rio Columbia, 1904-85 (546 itens). Placas de unidades agrícolas de municípios em áreas do projeto federal de irrigação, 1907-55 (1.320 itens). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias aéreas (23.165 itens): Levantamento dos rios Colorado, Deschutes e Weiser e outros sistemas fluviais em AZ, ID, OR, UT e WY, 1938-42. VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias (49.033 imagens): Progresso da construção em locais de projeto de bureau e projetos de bureau e outras atividades, 1902-36 (imagens JA-JAJ 34.020). Parques nacionais, 1918-31 (imagens PA-PI 439). Bureau, departamento e pessoal do governo, 1902-35 (P, 534 imagens). Bureau de exibições e exibições, 1922-32 (EX, 157 imagens). Mapas e diagramas de projetos de bureau, 1912-33 (MAP, 104 imagens). Projetos de irrigação em países estrangeiros, 1920-27 (imagens FB-FM 151). Projetos de irrigação malsucedidos, incompletos e pequenos, 1904-31 (imagens NA-NU 971). Projetos de irrigação no oeste e sul dos Estados Unidos, 1914-34 (imagens SA-SR 1.976). Projetos de irrigação, mostrando resultados de construção e econômicos, incluindo um álbum de Coolidge Dam, AZ, impressões, 1927-28 (DE, 79 imagens). Atividades do Civilian Conservation Corps nos locais do projeto do bureau, 1934-42 (C, CP 10.500 imagens). Assuntos diversos, 1905-33 (MS, 102 imagens). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

Publicações de microfilme: M96, M1145.

Encontrar ajudas: Emma B. Haas, Anne Harris Henry e Thomas W. Ray, comps., Lista de Fotografias de Projetos de Irrigação do Bureau of Reclamation, SL 15 (1959).

Slides coloridos (900 imagens): Atividades do Bureau, 1946-55 (KS). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

Slides da lanterna (385 imagens): Tribos indígenas do oeste dos Estados Unidos, 1899-1915 (L, 220 imagens). Projetos do Bureau, 1930 (LS, 165 imagens). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.3 REGISTROS DO ESCRITÓRIO DO ENGENHEIRO CHEFE
1889-1981

História: A Divisão de Construção, chefiada por um Chefe de Construção, estabelecida em Reclamation Service em 15 de dezembro de 1914, para servir como escritório central de pesquisa de engenharia de projeto, planejamento, design, construção e administração relacionada. A sede da Divisão foi transferida de Washington, DC para Denver, CO, em 1º de junho de 1915, onde constituiu o Escritório de Denver. O Chefe de Construção foi designado Engenheiro Chefe em 1º de abril de 1920 e a divisão tornou-se o Escritório do Engenheiro Chefe. O escritório de Denver foi reorganizado em 9 de setembro de 1943 e o engenheiro-chefe foi nomeado chefe do Ramo de Projeto e Construção, com responsabilidade de supervisão pela pesquisa, projeto e construção. Engenheiro-chefe designado sucessivamente comissário assistente e engenheiro-chefe, 1º de dezembro de 1953 Diretor de Projeto e Construção, 1º de setembro de 1970 e comissário assistente para Engenharia e Pesquisa, 1º de maio de 1978. Escritório de Denver designado sucessivamente Centro de Engenharia, 20 de julho de 1950 Pesquisa de Engenharia Center, 11 de maio de 1967 Engineering and Research Center, 1 de setembro de 1970 e Denver Office, 4 de março de 1988.

Registros textuais (em Denver): Correspondência geral ("Straights"), 1906-42. Correspondência geral (engenharia), 1902-42. Correspondência geral (registros de campo), 1902-42. Correspondência relativa à organização e pessoal do escritório, 1914-42. Construção do projeto e relatórios relacionados, 1902-60. Histórias de projetos relacionadas à operação e manutenção, 1910-14. Relatórios e histórias relacionadas à administração e planejamento de conservação, 1960-71. Atas de reuniões de conselhos de planejamento de recuperação, comitês e comissões especiais, 1946-71. Registros de congressos e convenções de recuperação, 1943-71. Relatórios anuais da Comissão do Alto Rio Colorado, 1950-69. Publicações técnicas, 1922-70. Registros técnicos de projeto e construção, 1957-70. Laboratório de hidráulica, relatórios e dados geológicos e hidrológicos, 1937-70. Cadernos de pesquisa do projeto, 1889-1937. Processos de terra e direito de passagem concluídos, 1945-54. Avisos e pedidos relacionados a projetos de irrigação, distritos e direitos de água, 1905-49. Correspondência geral relativa aos bairros de Bard e San Luis, 1911-81.

Planos de Engenharia (20.500 itens, em Denver): Planos e plantas dos locais do projeto e características originais e modificadas do projeto, 1902-60, com alguns mapas intercalados. VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias (90.349 imagens, em Denver): Progresso da construção em locais de projetos de escritórios e atividades de projetos de escritórios em cidades, campos de trabalho e áreas afetadas por projetos e funcionários do escritório, departamento e governo, 1902-70 (89.900 imagens). Procedimentos de pesquisa e teste, equipamentos de laboratório e modelos estruturais no Office of the Chief Engineer, Denver, CO, 1920-59 (449 imagens). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.4 REGISTROS DE ESCRITÓRIO DE CAMPO
1887-1995

115.4.1 Registros de escritórios regionais

História: Estabelecido por ordem do Secretário do Interior Harold L. Ickes, em 9 de setembro de 1943, para administrar as jurisdições estabelecidas ao longo das linhas de bacias hidrográficas. Responsável pelo planejamento de projetos, operações e manutenção, negociação de relações públicas de contratos de energia e coordenação de projetos de construção. As regiões Superior e Inferior do Missouri foram fundidas na Região da Bacia do Missouri (Billings, MT), outubro de 1985. A Região Sudoeste foi unida à Região da Bacia do Missouri e seu nome foi alterado para Região das Grandes Planícies (Billings, MT), outubro de 1988 .

Registros textuais (em Denver, exceto conforme observado): Registros da Região 1, Noroeste do Pacífico (Boise, ID), consistindo em álbuns de recortes de imprensa relacionados às atividades do bureau em Idaho e Oregon, 1903-27. Registros da Região 2, Meio-Pacífico (Sacramento, CA), consistindo de atas de correspondência de reuniões de conselhos de planejamento, comitês e comissões especiais de planejamento, relatórios geológicos e geográficos, relatórios finais de construção para fundações de barragens, canais e operações de bombeamento, comunicados à imprensa, livros de campo e outros cálculos relacionados a pesquisas para o Projeto Cachuma na Califórnia, 1935-76 relatórios e correspondência relacionados a projetos de recuperação propostos, estudos de 1928-80 e relatórios relativos a projetos de irrigação na Califórnia, relatórios de projeto e construção de 1935-72 para barragens e outros projetos de irrigação na Califórnia, instruções administrativas de 1947-79 e suplementos aos manuais da agência, 1941 -74. Registros da Região 3, Lower Colorado (Boulder City, NV), consistindo em comunicados à imprensa, 1933-79 e histórias de projetos para Boulder Canyon e projetos relacionados, 1934-87. Registros da Região 4, Alto Colorado (Salt Lake City, UT), consistindo em notas de campo e outros registros relativos aos projetos Carlsbad, Hondo, Rio Pecos, Rio Provo e Rio Grande, correspondência de 1890-1960 relativa a organizações de usuários de água e obras de irrigação, Projeto Rio Grande, registros de 1891-1914 relativos à adjudicação de direitos de água, Projeto Carlsbad, NM, 1901-39. Registros da Região 6, Upper Missouri (Billings, MT), consistindo em registros relacionados à organização, dedicatórias e celebrações de 1944-85, clima de 1945-84 e dados de pesquisa relativos aos Projetos Shoshone e North Platte em Wyoming, relatórios de 1887-1962 e dados relativos a direitos de água, distribuição e abastecimento no Projeto North Platte, ordens e avisos de 1905-37 relativos a terras retiradas, projetos de demonstração de 1904-44 no projeto de irrigação de Milk River, relatórios gerais e publicações de 1930-35, 1937-89 relatórios de andamento da construção, 1964-89 e arquivos de assuntos relacionados a áreas de recreação, instalações e serviços, 1952-87. Registros da Região 7, Lower Missouri (Denver, CO), consistindo em atas de correspondência de reuniões de conselhos de planejamento, comitês e comissões especiais, atas de 1917-76 e relatórios de conselhos de planejamento, comitês e comissões especiais, publicações de 1917-76, relatórios e publicações técnicas, publicações técnicas numeradas e não numeradas de 1900-40, relatórios de planejamento, geológico e geográfico de 1943-86, relatórios finais de construção de fundações de barragens, canais e operações de bombeamento e comunicados à imprensa, 1917-76. Registros do Escritório da Região de Great Plains consistindo em atas de reuniões, relatórios e outros registros relativos a conselhos de planejamento, comitês e comissões especiais, 1944-85 e correspondência relativa às subestações dos projetos de Fort Peck e Shoshone, 1946-5.

Planos de Engenharia (3.185 itens, em Denver): Com mapas interfileados, mostrando locais do projeto e características estruturais na Região 5, Sudoeste (Amarillo, TX), 1959-63 e na Região 7, Lower Missouri (Denver, CO), 1937-54 (2.660 desenhos). Desenhos preparados pela Região 1, Noroeste do Pacífico (Boise, ID) relativos à construção, materiais e locais de projeto para barragens e outros projetos de irrigação, principalmente em Oregon e Idaho, 1911-62 (525 desenhos).

Fotografias aéreas (5.510 itens, em Denver): Locais do projeto e áreas circunvizinhas na Região 2, Meio-Pacífico (Sacramento, CA), 1940-60 e na Região 5, Sudoeste (Amarillo, TX), 1938-68. (4.610 itens). Classificação das terras no Projeto do Vale de San Luis na Região 4, Alto Colorado (Salt Lake City, UT), 1941-65 (900 itens). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias (33.101 imagens, em Denver): Progresso da construção em locais de projeto, atividades de projeto, cidades, campos de trabalho e áreas afetadas por projetos e agências e outros funcionários do governo na Região 1, Noroeste do Pacífico (Boise, ID), Região 2 de 1903-65, Meio do Pacífico (Sacramento, CA), 1935-69 Região 3, Baixo Colorado (Boulder City, NV), 1946-59 Região 4, Alto Colorado (Salt Lake City, UT), 1902-54, 1962-93 Região 5, Sudoeste (Amarillo, TX), 1944- 64 Região 6, Upper Missouri (Billings, MT), 1935-74 e Região 7, Lower Missouri (Denver, CO), 1902-59. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.4.2 Registros de escritórios de projeto

Registros textuais (em Denver): Registros de construção de correspondência, relatórios geológicos e hidrológicos relacionados a cidades do governo e relatórios de reavaliação do projeto para o Projeto da Bacia de Columbia (Ephrata, WA), Projeto Palisades 1920-55 (Burely, ID), Projeto de Irrigação Navajo Indígena 1944-58 (Farmington, NM ), 1964-65 Dolores Archeological Program (sudoeste do Colorado), 1983-88 Wapinitia Project (Madres, OR), 1948-58 e Milk River Project (Montana), 1893-1970. Registros da área da Bacia de Klamath consistindo em folhas de contabilidade de reembolso, 1917-49.

Mapas (4.710 itens, em Denver): Mapas de classificação de terras do projeto para terras do projeto de irrigação no Colorado, Utah e Wyoming, criados pelo Grand Junction Projects Office, 1952-66 (1.300 itens, em Denver). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Planos de Engenharia (1.690 itens, em Denver): Com mapas interfileados, relativos à reavaliação do Projeto de Irrigação do Índio Navaho, 1964-65 (100 itens). Folhas planetáveis ​​criadas pelo Columbia Basin Projects Office, 1935-47 (840 itens). Desenhos para o Projeto Umatilla, Oregon, 1904-41 (150 itens). Desenhos, mapas e dados de projeto para barragens e outros projetos no Arizona, 1942-72 (600 itens). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias aéreas (2 itens, em Denver): Aspen, Colorado, mostrando locais de barragens propostas, 1939 (1 item). Rio Colorado na área próxima ao Projeto Big Thompson, 1946 (1 item). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Gravações de vídeo (72 itens): História de construção da divisão de bacia fechada, Projeto San Luis Valley Colorado, 1981-91. VER TAMBÉM 115.9.

Fotografias (131.182 imagens, em Denver): Locais de projetos, construção e áreas afetadas por atividades de projetos de projetos e agências e outros funcionários do governo para o Projeto da Bacia de Columbia (Ephrata, WA), projeto de Middle Rio Grande de 1933-59 (Albuquerque, NM), projeto de Upper Missouri 1952-54 (Grande Falls, MT), 1955-59 e Missouri-Oahe Project (Huron, SD), 1955-59 (7.590 imagens). Projetos de irrigação no Colorado, Novo México, Texas, Utah e Wyoming, 1912-87 (8.000 imagens). História de construção da divisão de bacia fechada, Projeto San Luis Valley Colorado, 1981-91 (5.300 imagens). Projetos do Bureau (100.000 imagens). Projetos da Youth ConservativeCorps no Novo México, Oklahoma e Texas, 1976-77 (700 imagens). Construção, reforma e outras atividades nos projetos hidrológicos do Bureau em todos os estados do oeste, 1976-79 (9.000 imagens). Pessoal do Bureau e primeiros projetos, 1906-43 (52 imagens). Atividades de recuperação, 1865-76 (540 imagens). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

Fotografias e negativos (73.000 imagens, em Denver): Construção do projeto de irrigação do Rio Dolores no sudoeste do Colorado, 1982-84. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

Fotografias e slides (3.000 imagens, em Denver): Teton Dam e materiais relacionados, 1969-78. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.4.3 Registros do Escritório de Denver

História: O escritório de Denver com quatro filiais foi estabelecido na mesma reorganização por ordem do Secretário do Interior Harold L. Ickes, 9 de setembro de 1943.

Registros textuais (em Denver): Relatórios e históricos de projetos para as instalações do corpo de trabalho de recuperação, 1965-84. Registros do Centro de Serviços de Denver consistindo em relatórios gerais sobre a administração e atividades do programa de recuperação, relatórios de projeto e construção de 1926-92 para Madden Dam, Panamá, especificações de construção de 1930-38, relatórios de Assuntos Internacionais de 1902-94, relatórios de recursos culturais de 1914-87, Relatórios de engenharia de 1942-94, declaração de impacto ambiental preliminar de 1912-62 para o Projeto do Vale Central, diretivas administrativas de 1993, 1986-92 e memorandos de pesquisa técnica, 1931-77. Registros do Centro Técnico de Denver consistindo em relatórios anuais gerais, 1952-92 (com lacunas).

Fotografias (55 imagens, em Denver): Pioneira e construção do prédio da sede do Bureau of Reclamation dos EUA em Denver, CO, 1964-67. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.4.4 Registros do Escritório do Chefe de Engenharia, Centro de Engenharia e Pesquisa (Denver, CO)

Registros textuais (em Denver): Relatórios gerais, 1938-92. Publicações técnicas numeradas, 1950-92. Relatórios de projeto, 1910-95. Relatórios técnicos gerais, 1915-79. Classificação de terras e relatórios de plano, 1947-59. Estudos e análises relacionados a estruturas e operações de barragens, 1935-65. Registro técnico de projeto e construção, 1955-83. Boletins informativos para o pessoal, 1945-95. Relatórios de planejamento definitivo do Upper Missouri da unidade de desvio da guarnição (Bismarck, ND), 1953-60. Relatórios de geologia e geografia para Narrows Dam (Fort Morgan, CO), 1948-61. Correspondência relativa a retiradas e restaurações para projetos de recuperação, 1956-59. Memorandos de política e procedimento para o comissário assistente de Engenharia e Pesquisa, 1989-94. Manuais e instruções de recuperação, 1909-82.

Fotografias (1.840 imagens, em Denver): Coleção fotográfica do Centro de Engenharia e Pesquisa composta por fotografias, lâminas de vidro e negativos relativos aos projetos de recuperação, locais e pessoal, 1906-65. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.4.5 Outros registros de escritório de campo

Registros textuais (em Denver): Correspondência e relatórios da U.S. Study Commission, Texas, relativos à conservação de recursos naturais, 1938-68. Registros do International Joint Committee e do Columbia River Engineering Board, 1944-61. Registros do Centro de Serviços de Recuperação consistindo em relatórios técnicos de projeto, construção, operação e manutenção de barragens, publicações do bureau de 1961-92, 1905-83 e especificações de construção para Boulder City, NV, 1931-56. Registros do Departamento de Publicações e Gerenciamento de Registros consistindo em cópias em microfilme de desenhos e outros registros relacionados a projetos de bureau, 1906-62 (1.600 rolos de microfilme).

Mapas (2.732 itens, em Denver): Desenhos e planos de edifícios de acampamento portátil do Civilian Conservation Corps, 1936 (32 itens). Desenhos de engenharia e mapas de localizações e estruturas para várias unidades no Projeto Umatilla em Oregon e no Projeto Bitteroot em Montana, 1904-62 (400 itens). Mapas de classificação de terras para o Projeto Owyhee em Idado e Oregon, 1946-93 (900 itens). Mapas de classificação de terras do projeto do Grand Junction Projects Office, 1952-66 (1.300 itens). Placas, mapas, gráficos e outros dados relacionados à análise de águas subterrâneas na Bacia de Tucson e no Arizona Central e no Condado de Solano, Califórnia, 1957-68 (100 itens). VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Planos de Engenharia (1.200 itens, em Denver): Com mapas e plantas intercalados, relacionados ao design e construção do projeto produzidos pelo Upper Columbia Development Office, 1909-62, e Lower Columbia Development Office, 1941-58. VER TAMBÉM 115,7.

Fotografias (3.791 imagens, em Denver): Construção dos projetos de irrigação Almena, Bostwick, Franklin, Glen Elder, Kirwin, Scandia e Superior em Kansas e na Bacia do Rio Missouri, 1952-68. Celebração do 90º aniversário, 1992 (41 imagens). VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

Impressos fotográficos, slides e negativos (12.000 imagens, em Denver): Projetos de recuperação no oeste dos Estados Unidos, Havaí, Porto Rico e Malayasa, mostrando vistas dos locais do projeto, andamento da construção, equipamentos e pessoal, testes de solos e materiais e fotografias aéreas de características geográficas, 1920-90. VER TAMBÉM 115.10.

115.5 REGISTROS DA COMISSÃO DE CONSELHEIROS ESPECIAIS DE RECLAMAÇÃO
1923-24

História: Nomeado pelo Secretário do Interior, em setembro de 1923, para estudar métodos federais de recuperação de terras por meio de irrigação. Relatório enviado em 10 de abril de 1924.

Registros textuais: Relatórios, correspondência e exposições que acompanham o relatório final, 1923-24.

Registros Relacionados: Relatório do Comitê publicado como S. Doc. 92, Senado dos EUA, 68º Congresso, 1ª sessão (Conjunto de série 8238).

115.6 REGISTROS DE ORGANIZAÇÕES PRIVADAS RELACIONADAS COM RECLAMAÇÃO
1899-1934

115.6.1 Registros da Associação Nacional de Irrigação

Registros textuais: Recortes sobre irrigação, revogação da lei de terras de 1899-1906, 1903 e agricultura, 1905-10. Comunicados à imprensa, 1903-6. Rascunhos de legislação relativa ao controle de rios, 1911. Records of the Mitchell News Bureau, 1902-3.

115.6.2 Registros da National Reclamation Association

Registros textuais: Correspondência geral, 1911-34. Correspondência com funcionários do governo, 1914-18. Registros diversos e correspondência, 1912-14, 1918-33. Álbuns de recortes de George H. Maxwell relacionados às atividades da associação, 1912. Decretos judiciais e reivindicações de direitos à água em Utah e Wyoming, 1904-16. Recortes relativos ao controle de inundações, 1912-14. Relatórios e publicações do governo, 1907-20.

115.6.3 Registros da American Homecroft Society

Registros textuais: Registos relativos à utilização de pátios e terrenos baldios para jardins, 1920-21. Material publicitário para Talisman, a revista da sociedade, 1920.

115,7 REGISTROS CARTOGRÁFICOS (GERAL)

VEJA os mapas EM 115.2, 115.4.2 e 115.4.5.
VER Planos de Engenharia SOB 115.3, 115.4.1, 115.4.2 e 115.4.3.
VEJA as Fotografias Aéreas SOB 115.2, 115.4.1 e 115.4.2.

115,8 IMAGENS DE MOVIMENTO (GERAL)
1950-85

Golden Valley, uma produção do Bureau of Reclamation, documentando as atividades do bureau, incluindo a construção de represas para energia e eletricidade, irrigação, controle de enchentes, recreação e conservação de peixes e vida selvagem, construção da Represa Glen Canyon, Projeto Piloto da Bacia do Colorado e o Canadian River Project, 1950 (1 bobina). The Great River, uma coprodução do Bureau of Reclamation e da Bonneville Power Administration, documentando o sistema de irrigação, controle de enchentes e barragens de energia hidrelétrica do rio Columbia e os benefícios de navegação, recreação e proteção da vida selvagem, 1963 (1 bobina). Atividades documentais do Bureau of Reclamation no oeste dos Estados Unidos, incluindo projetos relacionados à experimentação de recursos hídricos atmosféricos, as atividades do Fish and Wildlife Service, projetos de construção de Glen Canyon e outras represas, emergências de represas e reparos, controle de inundações, comunidades locais de nativos americanos. Projeto do Corpo de exército e personalidades como o congressista Ben "Night Horse" Campbell, o senador Frank Church, o governador do Arizona, Paul Fannin, a princesa Maragaret e Lady Bird Johnson, 1950-85 (161 bobinas).

115,9 GRAVAÇÕES DE VÍDEO (GERAL) 1950-91

Gravações de vídeo (196 itens): Atividades documentais do Bureau of Reclamation, incluindo a construção de represas para irrigação de energia e eletricidade e controle de inundações, atividades recreativas de peixes e conservação da vida selvagem construção de Glen Canyon, Flaming Gorge, Navajo, Ridgway, Brantley, Jordanelle, Fontenelle e outras represas estudos ambientais arqueologia projetos estudos de peixes ameaçados de extinção Animas-LaPlata, Middle Rio Grand, Central Utah, Strawberry Valley, Sevier River Basin e outros projetos um Job Corps Project Dolorus Project e personalidades como o congressista Frank Church, o governador do Arizona Paul Fanin, a princesa Maragaret e Lady Bird Johnson, 1950-91.

115,10 IMAGENS AINDA (GERAL)
1932-58

Fotografias de grupo de funcionários no Gabinete do Chefe dos Engenheiros e em outros escritórios do bureau, 1932-33, 1958 (3 imagens).

VEJA as fotografias EM 115.2, 115.3, 115.4.1, 115.4.2, 115.4.3, 115.4.4 e 115.4.5.
VEJA fotografias e negativos EM 115.4.2.
VEJA fotos e slides EM 115.4.2
VEJA Impressões fotográficas, slides e negativos EM 115.4.5.
VEJA slides de cores EM 115.2.
VEJA slides da lanterna EM 115.2.

Nota bibliográfica: Versão web baseada no Guia de Registros Federais dos Arquivos Nacionais dos Estados Unidos. Compilado por Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2.428 páginas.

Esta versão da Web é atualizada de tempos em tempos para incluir registros processados ​​desde 1995.


Represa Hoover

No início do século 20, o Bureau of Reclamation dos EUA elaborou planos para uma enorme barragem na fronteira Arizona-Nevada para domar o rio Colorado e fornecer água e energia hidrelétrica para o sudoeste em desenvolvimento. A construção dentro do prazo estrito provou ser um desafio imenso, pois a equipe perfurou túneis obstruídos por monóxido de carbono e ficou pendurada em alturas de 250 metros até as paredes do cânion. A maior barragem do mundo na época de sua conclusão em 1935, este marco histórico nacional armazena água suficiente no Lago Mead para irrigar 2 milhões de acres e serve como um destino turístico popular.

Na virada do século 20, os fazendeiros procuraram desviar o Rio Colorado para as comunidades emergentes do sudoeste por meio de uma série de canais. Quando o Colorado rompeu os canais em 1905, criando o interior do Mar de Salton, a tarefa de controlar o rio caudaloso coube ao Bureau of Reclamation dos EUA.

O diretor do Bureau, Arthur Powell Davis, em 1922, delineou um plano perante o Congresso para uma barragem multifuncional em Black Canyon, localizada na fronteira do Arizona com Nevada. Batizada de projeto Boulder Canyon, em homenagem ao local original proposto, a barragem não apenas controlaria inundações e irrigação, mas geraria e venderia energia hidrelétrica para recuperar seus custos. Ainda assim, o preço proposto de US $ 165 milhões preocupava alguns legisladores, enquanto representantes de seis dos sete estados na área de drenagem do rio & # x2014Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Novo México, Arizona e Nevada & # x2014 temiam que a água iria principalmente para a Califórnia.

O secretário de comércio Herbert Hoover intermediou o Pacto do Rio Colorado de 1922 para dividir a água proporcionalmente entre os sete estados, mas a disputa legal continuou até que o presidente cessante Calvin Coolidge autorizou o Projeto Boulder Canyon em dezembro de 1928. Em homenagem às contribuições do novo presidente e # x2019s, O secretário do Interior, Ray L. Wilbur, anunciou que a estrutura se chamaria Hoover Dam em uma cerimônia de inauguração em 1930, embora o nome só tenha se tornado oficial em 1947.

Com o desenrolar da Grande Depressão, trabalhadores esperançosos desceram a Las Vegas e montaram acampamento no deserto ao redor para ter a chance de trabalhar no projeto. Os contratados acabaram se mudando para Boulder City, uma comunidade construída especificamente a dez quilômetros do local de trabalho para abrigar seus funcionários. Enquanto isso, o governo dos EUA começou a encontrar um empreiteiro para construir a barragem proposta em arco de 60 andares. O contrato foi concedido em março de 1931 para Six Companies, um grupo de firmas de construção que reuniu seus recursos para cumprir o íngreme bônus de desempenho de US $ 5 milhões.

A primeira etapa difícil da construção envolveu explodir as paredes do cânion para criar quatro túneis de desvio para a água. Enfrentando prazos rígidos, os trabalhadores trabalharam em túneis de 140 graus sufocados com monóxido de carbono e poeira, condições que levaram a uma greve de seis dias em agosto de 1931. Quando dois dos túneis foram concluídos, a rocha escavada foi usada para formar uma barragem de caixão temporária que recanalizou com sucesso o caminho do rio & # x2019s em novembro de 1932.

A segunda etapa envolveu a limpeza das paredes que conteriam a barragem. Suspensos de alturas de até 250 metros acima do solo do cânion, os escaladores de alto escalão empunhavam britadeiras e postes de metal de 44 libras para derrubar o material solto, uma tarefa traiçoeira que resultou em vítimas de queda de trabalhadores, equipamentos e pedras.

Enquanto isso, o leito seco do rio permitiu o início da construção da usina, quatro torres de captação e a própria barragem. O cimento foi misturado no local e içado através do cânion em um dos cinco teleféricos de 20 toneladas, um balde novo capaz de atingir as equipes a cada 78 segundos. Compensando o calor gerado pelo resfriamento do concreto, quase 600 milhas de circuitos de tubos foram embutidos para circular a água através dos blocos derramados, com os trabalhadores continuamente pulverizando o concreto para mantê-lo úmido.

À medida que a represa subia, bloco por bloco, do fundo do cânion, as representações visuais do arquiteto Gordon Kaufmann tomaram forma. Optando por enfatizar a massa imponente da estrutura, Kaufmann manteve a superfície lisa e curva livre de adornos. O motor recebeu um toque futurista com aletas horizontais de alumínio para as janelas, enquanto seu interior foi projetado para homenagear as culturas nativas americanas.

Com o corpo de água que se tornaria o Lago Mead já começando a inchar atrás da barragem, o bloco final de concreto foi derramado e coberto a 726 pés acima do fundo do cânion em 1935. Em 30 de setembro, uma multidão de 20.000 pessoas assistiu ao Presidente Franklin Roosevelt comemora a conclusão da estrutura magnífica e # x2019. Aproximadamente 5 milhões de barris de cimento e 45 milhões de libras de aço de reforço foram para o que era então a barragem mais alta do mundo, seus 6,6 milhões de toneladas de concreto o suficiente para pavimentar uma estrada de São Francisco à cidade de Nova York. Ao todo, cerca de 21.000 trabalhadores contribuíram para sua construção.

A Represa Hoover cumpriu o objetivo de disseminar o rio Colorado através da paisagem árida do sudoeste, alimentando o desenvolvimento de grandes cidades como Los Angeles, Las Vegas e Phoenix. Capaz de irrigar 2 milhões de acres, suas 17 turbinas geram eletricidade suficiente para abastecer 1,3 milhão de residências. A barragem foi designada um marco histórico nacional em 1985 e uma das Sete Maravilhas da Engenharia Civil Moderna da América em 1994. Ela recebe cerca de 7 milhões de visitantes anualmente, enquanto o Lago Mead, o maior reservatório do mundo, hospeda outros 10 milhões como área de recreação.


Represa e reservatório de Flaming Gorge

Em 1869, o explorador John Wesley Powell chamou o desfiladeiro de paredes vermelhas do Green River, no Território de Wyoming, de "Desfiladeiro Flamejante". A Represa Flaming Gorge, concluída em 1964, ajuda a regular os fluxos de água e sua usina de energia gera eletricidade. A barragem está localizada em Utah, mas o reservatório se estende ao norte em Wyoming, perto da cidade de Green River. Em 1968, o Congresso dos EUA criou a Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area, que está localizada nos estados de Utah e Wyoming e atrai visitantes de todo o mundo.


O Fim da Era da Grande Represa

Barragens em grande escala sugeriam o domínio da engenharia sobre os caprichos da natureza e das condições sociais e econômicas estruturais. Eles cativaram os americanos que leram neles possibilidades para uma modernidade nova e emergente que misturava eletrificação rural, poder público e crescimento industrial. Mas o crescimento econômico teve um grande custo social e ambiental. A construção de barragens no oeste nas décadas de 1940 e 50 foi particularmente trágica para as comunidades indígenas rurais. Grand Coulee e a represa de Dalles no rio Columbia, por exemplo, inundaram os últimos locais de pesca com rede de mergulho do rio. Garrison Dam on the Missouri River displaced 90% of three affiliated tribes. Environmental costs were equally devastating. Concrete walls trapped sediment, drowned wetlands, and dramatically transformed river ecologies. Salmon symbolized this ecological tragedy, particularly on the Columbia basin where salmon catches plummeted two-thirds by 1960 by the 1990s, several Pacific salmon species were officially “endangered.”

Environmental damage provoked a backlash that overturned the political consensus favoring big dam projects. The Reclamation Bureau precipitated a major battle by including a large hydropower and storage dam in Echo Park, part of Dinosaur National Monument, in the proposed Colorado River Storage Project. Environmental opposition to save the park in the 1950s, spearheaded by the Sierra Club, ultimately forced the Reclamation Bureau to eliminate the dam, giving anti-dam advocates their first major victory. Perhaps more consequential was the organized opposition in the late 1950s and 1960s to a pair of hydropower dams proposed for construction just outside of Grand Canyon National Park. The dams would have turned the Grand Canyon’s southern and northern ends into lakes, drowning rugged portions of the Colorado River. Environmentalists eventually won this fight as well, removing the dams from the project approved in 1968. In lieu of the dams, the Reclamation Bureau built the coal-fired Navajo Generating Station to help meet regional electric power demands.

Multiple factors combined to bring the big dam era to a close. Federal legislation, particularly the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973, provided environmental lobbies with powerful legal tools to oppose new dam projects. Political leaders of both parties also disfavored financing expensive new dam projects that lacked both financial justification and ideal building sites. While federal agencies continued to build dams into the 1970s, the heyday of large-scale damming projects was over. Hydroelectricity receded in relative importance as nuclear power proliferated and fossil fuel use continued to skyrocket. Waterpower, which accounted for over a third of the country’s electrical generation in 1940, comprised only 12% in 1980.

The decline of dam building coincided with a movement to dismantle hydropower dams and “restore” rivers. Anti-dam literature and demonstrations in the 1970s focused on Glen Canyon Dam, which inundated a scenic canyon upstream from the Grand Canyon. Edward Abbey, through his Monkey Wrench Gang of eco-saboteurs, and Earth First! activists dreamed of blowing up Glen Canyon. Actual dam removal proved more procedural and politically fraught. New federal legislation in the 1970s and ’80s required dam owners to provide fish passages and meet water quality standards to renew their leases under the 1920 Federal Power Act. Beginning in the 1990s, combinations of local Native American activists, environmental groups, and federal wildlife agencies successfully lobbied to “decommission” dozens of hydropower dams by making the modification requirements for new leases uneconomical. The decommission strategy has been particularly successful in the Pacific Northwest where activists have forced power companies to remove dams from several branches of the Columbia River and, most famously, two sizable dams (each over 100 feet tall) from the Elwha River, just outside of Olympic National Park. The regional-scale federal dams like Glen Canyon, however, seem here to stay.

Hydroelectricity remains a major power source, particularly in the West and Appalachian Southeast but also, at a smaller scale, around the country. Hundreds of dams, most of them small, have been dismantled over the past three decades. The thousands of hydropower dams that remain continue to raise a difficult question: How do we weigh the social and environmental tradeoffs entangled with the nation’s first and oldest renewable energy infrastructure?


Klamath Basin Project (1906)

When trapper Peter Skene Ogden first saw the Upper Klamath River Basin in 1826, he observed that “the Country as far as the eye can reach [was] one continued Swamp and Lakes.” Following the end of the Modoc War in 1873, settlers began arriving in the region, eager to raise crops and livestock. However, the expanse of lakes, marshes, and wetlands (covering an area that stretches across what is today the Oregon-California state line), kept them from developing much of the land.

The National Reclamation Act, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902, made extensive agriculture in the Upper Klamath Basin possible by authorizing the reclamation of swamps and lakes to increase irrigable acreage. In 1906, the newly established Reclamation Service initiated the Klamath Project to drain lakes and wetlands for cultivation. The Klamath Project included a network of dams, canals, ditches, and other facilities to drain, move, and store Upper Basin water. Tule Lake became a sump one quarter of its former size. To carry out this large-scale experiment in hydrological engineering, California and Oregon had to cede their rights and title to Tule Lake, Lower Klamath Lake, and the surrounding land.

After World War I, Klamath Project plots were given to veterans who applied for them. The early homesteaders on Klamath Project lands had no electricity, running water, or telephones. They also lacked police and fire departments. Finding the Reclamation Service unresponsive to their needs and local officials unable to help them, the homesteaders founded the Tule Lake Community Club in 1928 and eventually created two schools and a sense of community.

Lower Klamath Lake evaporated after a berm carrying the railroad line between Klamath Falls, Oregon, and California cut it off from its source of water. As the lake shrank, grasshoppers, unchecked by insect-eating birds, infested the region. President Calvin Coolidge responded to the disaster by establishing the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. In 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt's Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act required the renamed Bureau of Reclamation to consider the needs of wildlife when planning projects.

During World War II, the U.S. War Relocation Authority built 10 concentration camps for 18,000 Japanese Americans on project lands. After the war, the Bureau of Reclamation opened 86 Klamath Project farm units of 160 acres or less to homesteading. More than 2,000 veterans applied to take part in the lottery that determined who would live and work there. In addition to a record of military service, applicants had to have farming experience and to be in good health. The new homesteaders formed a potluck social club, and they received support from the surrounding community. By the end of the twentieth century, 1,400 farms were operating on the Klamath Project, cultivating up to 210,000 acres of wheat, barley, alfalfa, potatoes, onions, horseradish, sugar beets, and other crops.

After a winter of drought in 2001, a court order under the Endangered Species Act forced the Bureau of Reclamation to curtail irrigation of Klamath Project farms in order to meet the water needs of wild Coho salmon and two species of Upper Basin suckers. Protests and counter-protests soon followed. On May 7, local farmers and ranchers gathered in Klamath Falls to form a "Bucket Brigade" in protest of the water cutoff. In July, anti-federal militants joined farmers at the headgates to install and guard pumps and pipes that sent Klamath River water directly into the main irrigation canal. In August, Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton delivered 75,000 acre-feet of irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake to Project fields. It was a political but not a practical victory, coming too late for most farmers to plant crops that would use the water.

In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation restored the flow through the canals of the Klamath Project without regard to the needs of aquatic species. That fall, about 80,000 mature salmon died shortly after entering the Klamath River to spawn, and thousands of juvenile salmon, attempting to migrate to the ocean, died in the river as well. This ecological calamity led to severe curtailment of commercial salmon fishing along 700 miles of the West Coast in 2006 and 2007. Klamath Project farmers responded by supporting federal disaster relief for the commercial fishing industry.

In 2008, representatives of Upper Klamath Basin farming and ranching communities, along with government officials, tribal leaders, and environmental organizations, signed a stakeholders' agreement that called for the restoration of wild salmon habitat in the Klamath Basin.

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Bureau of Reclamation - History

While Frederick Jackson Turner might have declared that the frontier was at an end in 1893, countless lands within the American West had not yet been reclaimed or made productive. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the federal government surveyed the country in the western states and territories, examining potential diversion and storage sites while calculating irrigable acreage. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 30 million acres could be irrigated, but by 1890, only 3.6 million acres were being farmed. Because of the vision of certain individuals who knew that for America to reclaim its arid Western lands required the involvement of the national government, the fertile acreage in the Salt River Valley in Central Arizona, the lands in western Nevada, the valley of the North Platte River in Nebraska and Wyoming, the farmers along the Milk River situated in northeastern Montana, and the region along the Uncompahgre River in Colorado, would have the necessary water to promote and sustain growth. This is a brief overview of the first five projects authorized by the Secretary of the Interior under the National Reclamation Act from their beginning, to their place today in the settlement of the West.

John Wesley Powell, Civil War general, explorer of the Grand Canyon, surveyor of Western lands, and head of the U.S. Geological Survey, believed that the federal government should reserve lands for the small family farmer and assist in the development of irrigation projects. Powell wanted the settlement of the West to be in the hands of the individual homesteader even though it would require support by Washington, yet not all the lands were still available land speculators claimed much of the potentially good farm acreage. But neither the early small landowning farmer, nor the land developer, or the eastern entrepreneurs, had the necessary resources to finance the construction of dams to store additional water to reclaim the western lands. In his report on arid lands, Powell wrote that he considered the character of the lands themselves, the engineering problems, and suggested, "legislative action necessary to inaugurate the enterprises by which these lands may eventually be rescued from their present worthless state."[1]

Promoters of western irrigation, including the influential National Irrigation Congress, maintained that the federal government should be involved in developing the arid lands. George Maxwell, a leading spokesman for the national irrigation movement and a believer that settlement of western lands by yeoman farmers would solve the social ills of the eastern urban centers with the movement of the population, met with Frederick Newell, chief hydrographer with the U. S. Geological Survey. Newell, a protege of John Wesley Powell, surveyed the arid lands of the West and understood the plight of the homesteader who could not get enough water to irrigation his lands and grow crops to support his family. Maxwell and Newell met frequently with Wyoming Senator Francis E. Warren and Nevada Congressman Francis G. Newlands to devise a plan so that the government could sponsor federally funded water projects.[2]

At the turn of the century many in Congress realized that without the support of the national government, settlement of additional lands in the West would not be possible various congressman supported a reclamation act which would provide federal monies to construct irrigation works and further the development of the arid lands. Yet, it was not until after the assassination of President William McKinley and the ascendency of Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency did Congress enact the National Reclamation Act. The statute, by authorizing the use of federal money from the sale of public lands, would make extensive areas of the West suitable for irrigation, provide homes for America's citizens, increase the agricultural production of the nation, and "make beneficial use of two of its national assets, land and water."[3]

Although the National Reclamation Act was not signed until June 17, 1902, the engineers prior to its passage had already investigated the Western landscape for potential dam sites and irrigable farm lands. After the measure's enactment, the engineers of the U. S. Geological Survey and then the newly created U. S. Reclamation Service prepared a list of potential projects for the Secretary of the Interior to authorize. The Reclamation Service considered certain criteria, such as water supply, storage facilities, alignment of canals, and selection of feasible lands. While the engineers usually required several years of study to make these necessary determinations, the western settlers were eager to begin the work of reclaiming the land and wanted projects announced as soon as possible.

The Reclamation Service, aware of the current circumstances, recommended certain projects that could be clearly defined with the costs and results estimated. As early as 1889, John Wesley Powell had explored the arid lands of the West, noting potential storage dam sites and the fertility of the land. Fellow geological engineer and later official in the Reclamation Service, Arthur P. Davis surveyed the land in the West by the turn of the century. With this background in place, it would not take long for the first projects to be selected by the Secretary of the Interior.

On March 7, 1903, Charles D. Walcott, Director of the U. S. Geological Survey recommended the first five projects to the Secretary of the Interior: Sweetwater (North Platte) situated in Wyoming and Nebraska, Milk River in Montana, Truckee (Newlands) in Nevada, Gunnison (Uncompahgre) located in Colorado, and the Salt River Project in Central Arizona. On March 14, 1903, Secretary Ethan A. Hitchcock concurred with the suggestions, stating that the Reclamation Service should concentrate its efforts upon these five projects, secure the lands needed for the dams, reservoirs and appurtenant irrigation works, negotiate with current owners of irrigable lands, and prepare contracts for the construction of the reclamation works.[4]

Each project presented both unique conditions while being similar in other respects. All five projects contained both private and public lands. A few projects had some irrigation works, while others needed the construction of storage dams to provide the additional water supply as well as canals and ditches to bring the water to the land. Towns and communities were created within the reclamation projects while the opportunity for others to grow and become major cities became a reality. By examining individually the first five projects, we can appreciate the impact of the National Reclamation Act on Western America.

In 1902, the authors of the National Reclamation Act provided a way for the settlers to support their families and develop the West through farming. The first five reclamation projects encountered varying degrees of success, but all managed to transform the land, some as originally intended, others with certain limitations, and at least one changed a fertile agricultural valley into a major metropolitan center that sparked the development of the whole state.

While the men of the Newlands Project envisioned irrigating 200,000 acres at its inception, by 1970, 62,000 acres received project water. Today claims by others to the waters of the Truckee and Carson rivers and Lake Tahoe, including land and water set aside for a wetlands project in Lahontan Valley and settlement of water rights with the Pyramid Lake Indian Tribe, limited the amount available for farming. Despite the water woes, the population has increased from under 1,000 people when the Newlands Project was authorized to over 18,000 people living within the Project lands. The "businessman/farmer" has become a part-time entrepreneur with more than 4,000 part-time farms averaging 13 acres, contributing approximately 35% of the current economy in Churchill County with a total crop value of a little over $13 million in 1992. The waters of the Newlands Project also support the growing recreational activities of camping, boating, and fishing.[5]

Currently farmers irrigate approximately 70,000 acres on the Uncompahgre Project, more than double the amount prior to its selection as a reclamation project, but less than the 130,000 acres planners imagined could be cultivated. Following the transfer of the operation and maintenance of the project to the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users' Association in 1932, additional irrigation works were constructed, including the Taylor Park Dam to regulate the water for the Gunnison Tunnel. Crops grown today are principally the same as when the project started except for sugar beets. In the 1960s, the farmers started growing malt barley for the manufacture of beer by the Adolph Coors company. Today the population is closer to 20,000, whereas a century ago, the region contained less than 5,000 residents.[6]

Farmers on the Milk River Project cultivate about 100,000 acres, certainly more than three times the amount irrigated 100 years ago. Project lands, stretching 165 miles, are divided into the Dodson Pumping Unit, and the Chinook, Malta, and Glasgow Divisions with individual irrigation districts operating the transmission and distribution facilities and the Bureau of Reclamation retaining control over the storage works. Like the Newlands Project, many of the current farm sizes provide income for only a part-time living, while owners have jobs in the nearby cities. The irrigated acreage has remained relatively stable in recent years, with ranching and farming the main industries on project lands.[7]

Urbanization has not been a factor on the Milk River Project, but other elements have influenced this reclamation project. Over the years, changes in crops grown have impacted the neighboring communities. Sugar beets, once a major crop that required a large labor force as well as producing feed for sheep, is no longer grown on the project lands. The elimination of this crop had a trickle down effect - without the sugar beets, the large number of migrant workers have not been needed and the sheep industry left the Milk River area. Extreme weather conditions, ranging from 100 degrees in the summer to minus 40 degrees in the winter, have also aided in the reduction of population on the Milk River Project. Farmers also have to contend with endangered or threatened species issues in the future to keep their irrigation water. Recreation is a major growth industry in the West and the creation of the Fresno and Nelson reservoirs and Lake Sherbume, have provided a favorite venue for boaters and fishermen who can also enjoy the waters of this reclamation project.[8]

Since a handful of mountain men began trapping the beaver, to the early immigrants looking for a better life, to the rancher seeking grazing lands, to the farmer searching for the fertile acre and enough water, the North Platte Project transformed the prairies to a part of America's farmland. At the turn of the century, the population of Scotts Bluff County was less than 3,000 people, while today, in the city of Scottsbluff alone, there are over 14,500 residents. With the North Platte Project, the irrigated acreage increased from 3,000 acres to over 300,000 acres and encouraged the development of the sugar beet industry worth over $47 million in 1991. Besides being a cash crop, sugar beets also provide feed for the traditional western occupation of ranching nearly a half a million head of cattle, sheep and hogs are raised on the North Platte Project. Almost from its start, the waters of the North Platte have been a safe haven for wildlife after President William Howard Taft created the Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge. Project lakes continue to provide a resting place for migratory fowl as well as a setting for recreational activities, including boating and fishing.[9]

From its foundation of bringing water and power to its shareholders in the Salt River Valley, SRP has become the largest raw water supplier in the Phoenix metropolitan area and the nation's third-largest public power utility, delivering power to over 745,000 customers. Maricopa County is the major population center of Arizona, increasing from 20,450 people in1900 to over 3 million in 2000. Phoenix, in the heart of the Salt River Valley, is the county seat, the state capitol of Arizona, and now the 6th largest city in the United States.

For almost one hundred years, the Association has continued to provide water to over 300,000 acre member and neighboring lands and has evolved into a multi-dimensional water service provider. Although only 44,000 acres are still being farmed within the Project, SRP delivers water to urban irrigators and several municipalities who treat the water and distribute it to SRP's urban shareholders. To this end, ten water treatment plants operated by eight cities dot the SRP water system.

SRP's stewardship of central Arizona's water supply has made it a leader in the management of water resources, encompassing a wide range of activities. In partnership with several Valley cities, SRP jointly owns and operates the Granite Reef Underground Storage Project (GRUSP), one of the largest recharge projects in the United States. GRUSP stores Central Arizona Project water on behalf of the Arizona Water Banking authority and others for use in the future when dry conditions will prevail. To assist various Valley entities, SRP cooperated with the Bureau of Reclamation in the delivery of Central Arizona Project water with the construction of the CAP/SRP Interconnect Facility near Granite Reef Dam. Operated by SRP, the interconnect links the CAP canal with SRP's irrigation system, further allowing for the purchase of surplus Colorado River water to meet the demands of our shareholders during times of water shortage as well as assist in water exchanges.

At the end of World War II, the Salt River Valley experienced a major explosion of growth which impacted SRP's traditional farming community. The returning veterans wanted homes and agricultural lands were sold for thousands of houses in the newly developed subdivisions. With increased urbanization, the Association had to find new ways to operate and maintain its canal system. Under the Bureau of Reclamation's Rehabilitation and Betterment Program, SRP started construction and implementation of the Supervisory Control system in the late 1960s. The advances in electronic equipment allowed for the design of a water distribution system covering 138 miles to be handled by a single operator. By the mid-1970s, computer equipment monitored telemetered data which displayed water levels and gate positions. The dispatcher could regulate 331 radial gates and almost one quarter of the deep-well pumps belonging to SRP. With this system, the water levels of the canals and laterals could be maintained at a constant level. Gone are the days when bells rang at the home of the gate operators to warn about pending trouble.

Keeping pace with new technology allowed SRP to utilize the new water Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) developed between 1989 and 1991. SCADA is a complex computer-based system which allows remote control and monitoring of the entire water canal system, a major portion of the deep-well system, and numerous sites of interest to water accounting concerns. The system remotely scans and operates over 120 sites on the canals and controls over twenty off-project flow and special-delivery sites and an ever-expanding number of water quality monitoring stations throughout the system.

With thousands of homes adjacent to the canals, SRP continues to maintain the physical appearance of its irrigation facilities. No longer are sheep seen eating the grass along the canal banks or the Yaqui laborers leading the horses in the ditches to eliminate the aquatic moss and weeds. In 1989, SRP instituted a program of stocking its canals with white Amur, a sterile weed eating fish that originally came from China and is considered an economically and environmentally safe alternative to chemical and mechanical weed control. SRP crews trim the trees and remove brush and other vegetation along the canal banks, not only for its own maintenance vehicles, but for the thousands of bicyclists, joggers, and horseback riders who use the paths for recreation. As part of a program completed in 1989, SRP installed safety steps and ladders providing a quick exist for stray animals and people who accidentally enter the canal system.

From its inception at providing electricity for the construction of Roosevelt Dam, power generation has been an integral part of the Salt River Project. The Association constructed its first hydropower plants on the Valley canals between 1911 and 1913, expanding its production with the construction of three additional dams, Mormon Flat, Horse Mesa, and Stewart Mountain, on the Salt River between 1923 and 1930. SRP had 49 power customers in the 1920s, by 1947, it delivered electricity to over 12,000 customers and by 2003, its power should be transmitted to close to 800,000.

To meet this continually growing demand for electricity, SRP upgraded its transmission and distribution systems over the years, converting from 25 cycle power to 60 cycle after World War II and building non-hydropower plants. Within the Salt River Valley, SRP built several oil or natural gas generating stations and participated in several coal-fired power plants in the southwest region, including Mohave Generating Station and the Four Corners Power Plant. As part of the Central Arizona Project, SRP was chosen as the construction manager and plant operator of the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, participating with other utilities and the federal government. During the 1970s, SRP decided to construct the coal-fired Coronado Generating Station alone, while being a partner in the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station southwest of the Salt River Valley. In order to provide its customers with a reliable source of power in the future, SRP is expanding its Valley generating stations and finding new and environmentally compatible methods for the production of power, including landfill gasses and solar energy. From its inception to the present day, Salt River Project has supplied both water and energy that helped fuel the growth of its shareholders and central Arizona.

The passage of the National Reclamation Act heralded a new era in the development of the arid West. While some might argue that the rhetoric of its passage is mythic, nonetheless, the act President Theodore Roosevelt signed on June 17, 1902, transformed the West. Prior to their selection by Secretary of the Interior Ethan A. Hitchcock as the first five reclamation projects, the lands in Nevada, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming-Nebraska, and Arizona, were being farmed, but without a stable water supply, sustained growth could not be achieved. The federal government, in the name of the Reclamation Service and later the Bureau of Reclamation, provided the funding and the engineering expertise to construct the necessary storage works, to allow for that development, whether in actual increased irrigated acreage, population, or economic value. The success of the National Reclamation Act can be measured by the accomplishments of the Newlands, Uncompahgre, Milk River, North Platte, and Salt River reclamation projects.

John Wesley Powell surveyed the American West more than one hundred years ago and saw thirty million acres that could be irrigated. Because of the vision of a few men and the Bureau of Reclamation, nine to ten million acres are productive, whether growing crops, homes, communities or fueling industries. Reclamation is the cornerstone of growth in the West: providing a stable water supply for crops, transforming the desert to farmlands, and now farmlands to cities, businesses, and communities producing electricity to operate the irrigation pumps, light the homes, and now power our industries. Reclamation's objective hasn't ceased, but instead becomes more fully developed: the foundation of growth in the American West.

Notas [1] John Wesley Powell, Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States: With a More Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah. Edited by Wallace Stegner. ( Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1962), 8. L. Smith, the Magnificent Experiment: Building the Salt River Reclamation Project , 1890-1917. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1986) 17-18. Karen L. Smith, "The Campaign for Water in Central Arizona, 1890-1903," Arizona and the West 23:2 (Summer 1981): 136-137. Bureau of Reclamation - History At the beginning of the 20th century the American government assisted in creating new infrastructure in the American West. One obstacle to further development was the large expanses of arid land with limited access to water. The federal Reclamation Act of 1902 created the United States Reclamation Service to provide federal funding for water storage and irrigation projects in 13 western states and three territories (Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona prior to statehood). At the time, the term "reclamation" referred to irrigation and its ability to reclaim lands previously considered to be inhospitable. The Reclamation Service was established within the US Geological Survey (USGS) and was initially funded by sales of federal land. Texas, at this time not having any federal land, was added by provision in 1906 although no projects were built in the state until the 1940s. In 1907 the Reclamation Service was separated from the USGS and was organized under an independent bureau within the US Department of the Interior. In 1923, the Reclamation Service was renamed the Bureau of Reclamation, with the goal to irrigate and make productive the arid lands of the American West by building dams, reservoirs, and canals. While beginning with goals to foster development in agriculture, project scope expanded to provide water for cities, industries, and recreation to create infrastructure to reduce flood damage and to produce power. On September 9, 1943, six regions and regional offices along river basin lines were established to more effectively manage projects, including the Region 5 headquarters in Amarillo. Region 5, also called the Southwest Region, included the Austin Development Office (or Austin Planning Office as it is referred to interchangeably). Over time the bureau approved more than 180 projects, with one of the last and largest projects being in the Colorado River Basin. In the 1970s the bureau started to shift its activities from active construction to project maintenance. This shift led to consolidation (the Southwest Region merged with the Upper and Lower Missouri Regions to form the Great Plains Region) and elimination of some area offices such as the regional office in Amarillo in 1988. As of 2020, the Bureau of Reclamation's areas of operation encompass regions 5-10 within the Department of Interior's 12 region assignments. The bureau's mission is to "manage, develop, and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of the American public." Scope and Contents of the Records

The United States Bureau of Reclamation is the federal agency responsible for managing water resources in the western United States. Originally, management projects focused on reclamation of lands considered inhospitable due to lack of water through irrigation, but over time they have come to include maintenance of existing projects and development of environmental protection strategies for water resources. These records document water reclamation studies undertaken in Texas between 1940 and 1967 from the Austin Development Office. The bulk of the records date 1946-1966. The records are related to the bureau's proposed and completed projects within Texas borders and include memorandums, reports, and plans regarding various infrastructure projects for water resource diversion, distribution, use, and development. Project reports focus on watersheds, basins, rivers, and canals. Reports also include various appendices addressing anticipated agricultural, financial, and social impacts. Reference copies of academic and technical reports about ground water, irrigation, and water quality are also present.

To prepare this inventory, the described materials were cursorily reviewed to delineate series, to confirm the accuracy of contents lists, to provide an estimate of dates covered, and to determine record types.

Arrangement of the Records

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Most records created by federal agencies are not copyrighted. Federal records also include materials received by, not created by, federal agencies. Copyright remains with the creator. The researcher is responsible for complying with U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S.C.).

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Preferred Citation

(Identify the item), United States Bureau of Reclamation Region 5 (Texas) reclamation studies. Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Accession Information

These records were transferred to the Archives and Information Services Division of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission by the United States Bureau of Reclamation on June 27, 1973.


History of the Bureau of Reclamation

When Major John Wesley Powell explored the Colorado River and its surrounding landscape over 130 years ago, he envisioned a place that could be settled, but not without consequences. His purpose was to study the arid lands and the landscape of the Colorado River basin, which resulted in recommendation of how western lands, and the Colorado River basin should be developed. He stated three major conclusions from his exploration and study of the Colorado River:

  1. The lands of the West have limits.
  2. The way the West is settled will have political consequences.
  3. Waters of the West should be managed by watersheds.

Powell’s recommendations on how settlement of the arid West should be managed were essentially ignored. Many scholars believe that most of the complex water policy problems that plague the West today would likely have been averted if a more careful approach that considered Powell’s recommendations was taken to settling the West.

In the beginning , settlement in the West was relatively easy and actually encouraged by the federal government. When settlers needed water they just diverted it from streams and rivers. Water rights in the West were determined by prior appropriation, which follows the mantra “first in time, first in right”. As the population of settlers started to grow, interest in diverting and damming rivers and streams began to grow. Pressure began to mount on the federal government to develop water resources and storage projects in the West to help subsidize farming and settlement. The phrase “reclamation” was applied in the early 1900s to irrigation projects meant to “reclaim” the arid lands for human use.

In 1901, after President Theodore Rooselvelt visited the West, the United States government officially got involved in “reclamation”. In 1902, the Reclamation Act became law, and created the Reclamation Service. Funding for reclamation projects came from public land revenues and other sources. Between 1902 and 1907 the Reclamation Service began 30 projects in the western states and Fredrick Haynes Newell was appointed the first director of the new bureau.

In 1922, the Colorado River Compact was signed by the seven states within the Colorado River basin, to divide and allocate the waters of the Colorado River. This would prove to be the most difficult and complex of the interstate compacts because of the complicated issue of dividing the shares of the Colorado River’s water between the basin states.

Hoover Dam

In 1923, the name of the Reclamation Service changed to the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) and in 1928 large appropriations began to flow to reclamation from the general funds of the United States. In 1928, the Boulder Canyon (Hoover Dam) Project was authorized. The first major catastrophe of the dam-building era occurred that same year, when the St. Francis Dam on the Santa Clara River (CA) failed immediately upon filling, sending a 100 ft wall of water downstream and killing 420 people.

During the Depression, Congress authorized over 40 more “New Deal” projects to provide public works jobs and to promote infrastructure development. The height of the dam-building era occurred during the time of the Depression and for thirty-five years after World War II. In 1936, Hoover Dam was completed (221 meters high), which set precedent for the BOR becoming a major hydroelectric producer. After the building of Hoover Dam, hydroelectric projects became a major feature of many reclamation projects, which had proved to be a major source of revenue for repaying Reclamation project costs: i.e. the “cash register” dams.

When the Colorado River Compact was first ratified, if was an agreement to divide the water of the “American Nile” between the seven states within its basin. The Colorado River Compact divided the river’s estimated 15 million acre-feet (MAF) of water equally between the upper and lower basins and established the cornerstone of the Law of the River. The Compact also provided that the Upper Basin states would not cause the flow of the river at Lee Ferry, Arizona to fall below 75 MAF for any period of ten consecutive years. In 1944, a treaty was signed to supply Mexico with a 1.5 MAF of water annually, thus obligating 16.5 MAF of Colorado River annually. Between 1928 and 1956 several new Acts and agreements governed the water development of the lower basin as California’s water needs grew with its steadily increasing population.

The Colorado River Storage Project (CRSP) Act was passed in 1956 providing a comprehensive upper basin-wide water development plan with the primary purpose of ensuring the upper basin’s water rights and meeting the 1922 Compact’s delivery requirement to the lower basin. The original CRSP proposal included the Echo Park and Split Mountain Dam projects, which would have backed Green River water up into Dinosaur National Mounument. As the symbolic birth of the modern Environmental Movement, public opposition organized to demand the omission of the “Dinosaur Dams”. As part of the unfortunate compromise with proponents of the CRSP, Glen Canyon Dam was allowed to be built without opposition. Glen Canyon Dam which was completed in 1963, was built as the keystone of the CRSP. The Colorado River Basin Project Act of 1968 instructed the Secretary of Interior as how to manage the Long-Range Operating Criteria (LROC) of Glen Canyon Dam.

In 1969 the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was introduced, which didn’t have any impact on existing structures like Glen Canyon Dam, however, any future “major federal actions” regarding changes in dam operation or construction of new water projects would be subject to the NEPA process. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1972 on the other hand is directly relevant to dam operation. The ESA ordered all agencies to take action so as to protect and conserve endangered species and their ecosystems from extinction. Since all dams alter riparian ecosystems, passage of ESA caused changes in Reclamation management, which ultimately shifted their theory of management from construction of new water projects to operating and maintaining existing facilities over the next three decades.

Glen Canyon Dam

At the core of the BuRec’s shift in management policy is Glen Canyon Dam and the Grand Canyon. Shortly after the dam’s completion, many concerns over the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam on the downstream ecosystem of the Grand Canyon began to surface. In an attempt to study these problems the BOR instituted Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) which revealed that dam operation were having negative impacts on the ecosystem. During the 1980s internal reforms within the BOR led to a shifting management philosophy of the BOR from a dam building agency to a dam management agency. Further reforms within the BOR led to the increased prioritization of environmental concerns in dam operations decisions.

As a major step toward greater environmental sensitivity within management decisions, the Secretary of the Interior ordered a Glen Canyon EIS in 1989 to study the problems. A few years later, the Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA) was passed, requiring that protection of the Grand Canyon be considered a priority in dam operation management. The following year, Dan Beard (Commissioner of the BOR) released the ‘93 Blueprint for Reform, which supported greater environmental concern through ecosystem management and increased collaborative decisionmaking involving non-traditional stakeholders. The completion of the Glen Canyon EIS in 1996 led to the Secretary of the Interior recommending a new operation plan for the dam that was designed to reduce impacts on downstream resources. Additionally, the Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was established to continue studying the impacts of the dam and make recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior as to how operations should be managed to reduce environmental impacts.

The present day Bureau of Reclamation currently operates and maintains more than 180 projects in the seventeen Western states. (Other water projects around the country are operated by the Army Corp of Engineers or privately). Reclamation projects provide water for about one-third of the population of the west for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses. Furthermore, the BOR plays a role in hydroelectric power generation and marketing, recreation, natural and cultural resources, and flood control.

The future of the BOR shows that its budget and staffing levels are expected to decrease further into the 21st century. While a significant policy shift has occurred within the BOR, there are still major social hurdles on the path toward managing our nation’s rivers. With the ongoing drought in the West triggering great interest in a sustainable water supply, it is inevitable that the BOR will continue to evolve toward a more efficient and effective, sustainable Western water delivery system.


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