A história

EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA - História


GERAL EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA
ESTATÍSTICAS VITAIS
NASCIDO: 1821 em Limestone County, AL
FALECEU: 1907 em Hot Springs, NC.
CAMPANHAS: Port Gibson, Vicksburg, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Todas as Campanhas de 1864 do Exército do Tennessee, Nashville, Kinston, Bentonville.
MAIOR RANK ALCANÇADO: General de brigada
BIOGRAFIA
Edmund Winston Pettus nasceu em Limestone County, Alabama, em 6 de julho de 1821. Ele obteve uma educação básica em escolas comuns locais e, em seguida, estudou no Clinton College, no Tennessee. Ele estudou direito em Tuscumbia, Alabama, e foi admitido na ordem dos advogados em 1842. Depois de estabelecer uma prática em Gainesville, foi eleito advogado para o 7º Tribunal do Circuito. Pettus serviu na Guerra do México, depois deixou o exército e foi para a Califórnia, retornando ao Alabama dois anos depois. Durante a crise da secessão, ele foi nomeado comissário para o Mississippi, enquanto seu irmão John J. Pettus era governador daquele estado, para discutir os planos do estado para a secessão. Ele se juntou ao exército confederado e participou da defesa do Fort Gibson. Capturado quando a guarnição caiu, ele escapou antes que pudesse ser trocado. Depois de lutar no Cerco de Vicksburg, ele foi novamente capturado, mas logo foi trocado. Ele foi promovido a general de brigada em 18 de setembro de 1863, depois de servir em Lookout Mountain e Missionary Ridge. Como parte do Exército do Tennessee, ele lutou em todas as suas campanhas até 1864, incluindo os combates em Nashville, Kingston e Bentonville. Ferido em Bentonville, ele se rendeu na estação de Durham e foi para casa. Pettus se estabeleceu em Selma, Alabama, e estabeleceu seu escritório de advocacia lá. Representando o Alabama na convenção nacional democrata de 1876 a 1896, ele foi eleito duas vezes para o Senado dos EUA, em 1896 e 1902. Pettus morreu em 27 de julho de 1907, em Hot Springs, Carolina do Norte .; enquanto cumpria seu segundo mandato senatorial.

EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA - História

Não posso garantir essa informação, mas aqui está uma Ordem de Batalha online que encontrei para os Confederados na Igreja de Ezra.

Divisão Hindman - Major General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Escolta
Empresa "B", 3ª Cavalaria do Alabama --- Capitão F. J. Billingslea

Brigada de Deas - Brigadeiro General Zachary Cantey Deas
19 Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
22º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
25º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
39º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
50º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
17º Batalhão de atiradores de elite do Alabama

Brigada de Manigault - Brigadeiro General Arthur Middleton Manigualt
24º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
28º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Tenente Coronel W. L. Butler
34º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
10º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Sul
19º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Sul

Brigada de Tucker - Brigadeiro General William Femister Tucker
7º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
9º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
10º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
41º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
Atiradores do 9º Batalhão Mississippi

Brigada de Walthall - Brigadeiro General Edward Cary Walthall
24º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
27º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
29º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
30º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
34º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi

Divisão de Stevenson - Major General Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Escolta - Capitão T. B. Wilson

Brigada de Brown - Brigadeiro General John Calvin Brown
3º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
18º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
26º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
32º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
45º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee --- Coronel A. Searcy
23º Batalhão de Infantaria do Tennessee --- Coronel A. Searcy

Brigada de Cummings - Brigadeiro General Alfred Cumming
34º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
36º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia --- Coronel C. E. Broyles
39º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
56º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
2ª Tropa do Estado da Geórgia

Brigada de Reynold - Brigadeiro General Alexander Welch Reynolds
58º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Norte
60º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Norte
54º Regimento de Infantaria da Virgínia
63º Regimento de Infantaria da Virgínia --- Capitão C. H. Lynch

Brigada de Pettus - Brigadeiro General Edmund Winston Pettus
20º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
23º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Tenente Coronel J. B. Bibb
30º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
31º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
46º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama

Divisão de Stewart - Major General Henry DeLamar Clayton
Escolta
Empresa "C", 1ª Cavalaria da Geórgia --- Capitão George T. Watts

Brigada de Stovall - Brigadeiro General Marcellus Augustus Stovall
40º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
41º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
42º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
43º Regimento de Infantaria da Geórgia
1ª Tropa do Estado da Geórgia

Brigada de Clayton - Brigadeiro General James Thadeus Holtzclaw
18º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
32º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
58º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
36º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
38º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama

Brigada de Baker - Brigadeiro General Alpheus Baker
37º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
40º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Coronel John H. Higley
42º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
54º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Tenente Coronel J. A. Minter

Brigada de Gibson - Brigadeiro General Randall Lee Gibson
1º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
4º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana --- Coronel S. E. Hunter
13º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana --- Tenente Coronel F. L. Campbell
16º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
25º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
19º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
20º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
30º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana
14º Batalhão, Atiradores de elite da Louisiana --- Major J. E. Austin

Artilharia - Coronel Robert F. Beckman
Batalhão de Courtney - Major A. R. Courtney
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de artilharia confederada --- Capitão S. H. Dent
Bateria de artilharia do Texas
Batalhão de Eldridge - Major J. W. Eldridge
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de Artilharia da Louisiana --- Capitão Charles E. Fenner
Bateria de artilharia do Mississippi
Batalhão de Johnston - Major J. W. Johnston
Bateria de Artilharia da Geórgia
Bateria de artilharia da Geórgia --- Capitão J. B. Rowan
Bateria de artilharia do Tennessee --- Capitão L. G. Marshall
Batalhão de Williams / Kolb
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de artilharia do Mississippi --- Capitão Putnam Darden
Bateria de Artilharia da Virgínia

STEWART'S CORPS
LIEUTENANT GENERAL ALEXANDER PETER STEWART
Escolta
Orleans Light Horse --- Capitão L. Greenleaf

Divisão de Loring - Major General William Wing Loring
Escolta
Empresa "B", 7ª Cavalaria do Tennessee --- Capitão J. P. Russell

Brigada de Featherston - Brigadeiro General Winfield Scott Featherston
1º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Major M. S. Alcorn
3º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
22º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
31º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
33º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
40º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
Atiradores do 1º Batalhão de Mississippi --- Major G. M. Stigler

Brigada de Adam - Brigadeiro General John Adams
6º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel Robert Lowry
14º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Tenente Coronel W. L. Doss
15º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
20º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel William N. Brown
23º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
43º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel Richard Harrison

Brigada de Scott - Brigadeiro General Thomas Moore Scott
27º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
35º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Coronel S. S. Ives
49º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
55º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
57º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
12º Regimento de Infantaria da Louisiana

Divisão Francesa - Brigadeiro General Samuel Gibbs French

Brigada de Ector - Brigadeiro General Matthew Duncan Ector
29º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Norte --- Tenente Coronel B. S. Proffitt
39º Regimento de Infantaria da Carolina do Norte - Coronel D. Coleman
9º Regimento de Infantaria do Texas
10º Regimento de Cavalaria Desmontada do Texas --- Coronel C. R. Earp
14º Regimento de Cavalaria Desmontada do Texas --- Coronel J. L. Camp
32º Regimento de Cavalaria Desmontada do Texas --- Coronel J. A. Andrews
Batalhão de Cavalaria de Jaques --- Major J. Jaques

Brigada de Cockrell - Brigadeiro General Francis Marion Cockrell
1ª Cavalaria Desmontada do Missouri
3ª Cavalaria Desmontada em Missouri --- *
1º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri
4º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri --- #
2º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri --- Coronel P. C. Flournoy
6º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri --- $
3º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri --- Coronel James McCown
5º Regimento de Infantaria do Missouri --- @
* Consolidado com a 1ª Cavalaria Desmontada do Missouri
# Consolidado com a 1st Missouri Infantry
$ Consolidado com a 2ª Infantaria do Missouri
@ Consolidado com 3rd Missouri Infantry

Brigada de Sear - Brigadeiro General Claudius Winstar Sears
4º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel T. N. Adaire
35º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
36º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel W. W. Witherspoon
39º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi
46º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi --- Coronel W. H. Clark
7º Batalhão de Infantaria do Mississippi

Divisão de Walthall - Brigadeiro-General Edward Cary Walthall

Brigada de Quarles - Brigadeiro General William Andrew Quarles
1º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Coronel S. L. Knox
42º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
46º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
55º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee --- *
48º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
49º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
52º Regimento de Infantaria do Tennessee
* Consolidado com 46ª Infantaria do Tennessee

Brigada de Reynold - Brigadeiro General Daniel Harris Reynolds
1º rifles montados em Arkansas (desmontados)
2 ° rifles montados em Arkansas (desmontados)
4º Regimento de Infantaria de Arkansas
9º Regimento de Infantaria de Arkansas
25º Regimento de Infantaria de Arkansas

Brigada de Gholson - Coronel John McQuirk
(Temporariamente anexado em 28 de julho de 1864)
Brigada de Cantey - Coronel Edward Asbury O'Neal
17º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
26º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama --- Major D. F. Bryan
29º Regimento de Infantaria do Alabama
27º Regimento de Infantaria do Mississippi

Artilharia - Tenente Coronel S. C. Williams
Batalhão de Waddell
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama --- Capitão W. D. Emery
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de Artilharia do Missouri
Batalhão de Myrick - Major J. D. Myrick
Bateria de artilharia da Louisiana
Bateria de artilharia do Mississippi
Bateria de Artilharia do Tennessee
Batalhão de Storrs - Major George S. Storrs
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de artilharia do Mississippi
Bateria de Artilharia do Missouri
Batalhão de Preston / Truehart - Major W. C. Preston
Major D. Truehart
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama --- Tenente C. W. Lovelace
Bateria de artilharia do Alabama
Bateria de artilharia do Mississippi --- Capitão J. H. Yates

Divisão de Cavalaria - Brigadeiro General William Hicks Jackson

Brigada de Armstrong - Brigadeiro General Frank Crawford Armstrong
1º Regimento de Cavalaria do Mississippi --- Coronel R. A. Pinson
2º Regimento de Cavalaria do Mississippi --- Major J. J. Perry
28º Regimento de Cavalaria do Mississippi
Cavalaria do Mississippi de Ballentine
Companhia "A" 1ª Cavalaria Confederada --- Capitão James Ruffin

Brigada de Ross - Brigadeiro General Lawrence Syullivan Ross
1ª Legião do Texas --- Coronel E. R. Hawkins
3º Regimento de Cavalaria do Texas --- Tenente Coronel J. S. Boggess
6º Regimento de Cavalaria do Texas --- Tenente Coronel Peter F. Ross
9º Regimento de Cavalaria do Texas

Brigada de Ferguson - Brigadeiro General Samuel Wragg Ferguson
2º Regimento de Cavalaria do Alabama --- Coronel John N. Carpenter
56º Regimento de Cavalaria do Alabama
9º Regimento de Cavalaria do Mississippi --- Coronel H. H. Miller
11º Regimento de Cavalaria do Mississippi --- Coronel R. O. Perrin
12º Batalhão de Cavalaria do Mississippi

Artilharia - Capitão John Waties
Bateria de Artilharia da Geórgia
Bateria de artilharia do Missouri --- Capitão Houston King
Bateria de artilharia da Carolina do Sul --- Tenente R. B. Waddell

1ª Divisão, Milícia do Estado da Geórgia - Major General Gustavus Woodson Smith

1ª Brigada - Brigadeiro General R. W. Carswell
Tropas do Estado do 1º Regimento --- Coronel E. H. Pottle
Tropas de Estado do 2º Regimento --- Coronel C. D. Anderson
Tropas do 5º Regimento - Coronel S. S. Stanford
Tropas Estaduais do 1º Batalhão --- Tenente Coronel H. K. McCay

2ª Brigada - Brigadeiro General P. J. Phillips
Tropas de Estado do 3º Regimento --- Coronel Q. M. Hill
4º Regimento das Tropas Estaduais --- Coronel R. McMillan
Tropas do 6º Regimento do Estado --- Coronel J. W. Burney
Batalhão de artilharia estadual --- Coronel C. W. Stiles


Início da vida e carreira de amp

Edmund Pettus nasceu em 1821 em Limestone County, Alabama. Ele era o caçula de nove filhos de John Pettus e Alice Taylor Winston, irmão de John J. Pettus e primo distante de Jefferson Davis. Ele foi educado em escolas públicas locais e mais tarde se formou no Clinton College, localizado em Smith County, Tennessee.

Pettus então estudou direito em Tuscumbia, Alabama, com William Cooper e foi admitido na ordem dos advogados do estado em 1842. Pouco depois, ele se estabeleceu em Gainesville e começou a trabalhar como advogado. Em 27 de junho de 1844, Pettus casou-se com Mary L. Chapman, com quem teve três filhos, dois dos quais morreram na infância, e duas filhas. Também naquele ano foi eleito procurador do sétimo Circuito Judicial do Alabama.


Slitherine

Brigue. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, CSA (n. 1806, d. 1878) Um general da Guerra do México, Gideon Johnson Pillow ocupou o posto de major-general com dois exércitos diferentes, mas foi apenas um general de brigada no serviço confederado. Pillow nasceu em Williamson County, Tennessee, em 8 de junho de 1806. Formado em 1827 pela Universidade de Nashville, Pillow foi advogado em Columbia, Tennessee, com James Knox Polk, mais tarde presidente dos Estados Unidos. Polk nomeou Pillow como general de brigada de voluntários em 1846 para a Guerra do México. Seu ex-sócio jurídico também o ajudou a garantir a patente de major-general. Pillow não teve medo de entrar no combate e foi ferido duas vezes na campanha na Cidade do México. Ele não era o favorito do general Winfield Scott, mas foi defendido por Polk. Pillow tentou, sem sucesso, fazer a passagem para vice-presidente em 1852 e 1856. Quando o Tennessee se separou em 1861, Pillow foi nomeado major-general das tropas estaduais. Ele foi comissionado como general de brigada no Exército Provisório da Confederação em 9 de julho de 1861. A primeira ação ocorreu na Batalha de Belmont. Pillow era o segundo em comando no Fort Donelson sob o general John B. Floyd quando as forças federais sitiaram o forte. Floyd passou o comando para Pillow, que por sua vez deixou o general Simon B. Buckner no comando. Floyd e Pillow então escaparam antes da rendição. Esse foi o fim do comando de Pillow sobre qualquer coisa importante. Ele foi designado para o serviço de voluntários e conscritos no Tennessee e tornou-se comissário geral de prisioneiros após o general J.H. Winder morreu. Após a guerra, Pillow faliu, mas voltou a exercer a advocacia em Memphis com o ex-governador Isham G. Harris como parceiro. Pillow morreu perto de Helena, Arkansas, em 8 de outubro de 1878.

Brigue. Gen. Albert Pike, CSA (nascido em 1809, falecido em 1891) O que diabos um Whig nascido em Boston estava fazendo como general-de-brigada confederado encarregado das tropas indianas no Arkansas? Isso é apenas parte da vida complexa de Albert Pike. Nascido em Boston em 29 de dezembro de 1809, Pike teve muitas realizações em sua vida além de seu serviço como general de brigada da Confederação. Pike foi lembrado como um brilhante professor, poeta, autor, advogado, editor e expoente da Maçonaria durante sua vida. Pode-se dizer que ele era um comedor prolífico e pesava mais de 136 quilos. De 1824 a 1831, Pike ensinou em escolas da Nova Inglaterra. Ele deixou o nordeste em 1831, chegando a Independece, Missouri. Lá, ele se juntou a um grupo de caçadores e comerciantes com destino a Santa Fé., N.M. Ele se estabeleceu em Arkansas em 1833 e estava ensinando em uma escola no Condado de Pope. Ele ensinou, foi editor de jornal, poeta, advogado e fazendeiro antes do início da Guerra Civil. Um Whig que se opôs à secessão, ele finalmente deu seu apoio à nova nação depois que o Arkansas deixou a União. Ele usou seus laços com as nações indígenas (ganhou um caso enquanto representava a Tribo Creek contra o governo federal) para tentar obter o apoio deles para a causa confederada. Pike foi nomeado general de brigada em 15 de agosto de 1861 e prometeu ao general Earl Van Dorn que teria 7.000 guerreiros ferozes prontos para a ação. Ele liderou três regimentos indianos no Arkansas com cerca de um terço da força prometida. Na Batalha de Elkhorn Tavern, as tropas indianas de Pike derrotaram uma bateria federal comandada pelo coronel Peter Osterhaus. No entanto, os índios pararam para comemorar e não estavam preparados para o contra-ataque. Foi acusado de que os índios de Pike escalpelaram vários federais mortos e feridos. Van Dorn ignorou a ordem de Pike em seus relatórios. Pike defendeu suas tropas, afirmando que elas foram recrutadas apenas para a defesa de seu território. O próximo comandante de Pike, o general Thomas Hindman, foi o próximo a discutir com Pike sobre o manuseio de dinheiro e material. Hindman ordenou a prisão de Pike, mas Pike desapareceu no Arkansas. O general Douglas Cooper disse que Pike era "louco ou falso para o Sul". Pike renunciou ao cargo em 12 de julho de 1862 e a renúncia foi aceita em 5 de novembro de 1862. Pike permaneceu em semi-aposentadoria pelo resto da guerra. Após a guerra, Pike teve que lidar com acusações federais, mas foi capaz de recuperar seus direitos civis. Ele era advogado em Memphis antes de aceitar o cargo de porta-voz nacional da Maçonaria. Ele morreu na casa do Templo do Rito Escocês em Washington, D.C. em 2 de abril de 1891.

Ignorando Pickett, pelo que vejo que ele terminou. Eu descobri que Pickett vendeu seguro depois da guerra. Você compraria um seguro da Pickett?

Brigue. Gen. Edmund W. Pettus, CSA (n. 1821, d. 1907) O último general-brigadeiro confederado a servir no Senado dos Estados Unidos, Edmund Winston Pettus serviu os últimos anos de sua vida no Congresso, de 1896 até sua morte em Hot Springs, NC, em 27 de julho de 1907. Pettus nasceu em Limestone County, Alabama. , 6 de julho de 1821. Frequentou o Clinton College no Tennessee e leu direito em Tuscumbia, Alabama. Pettus foi admitido na ordem dos advogados em 1842, estabelecendo-se em Gainesville, Alabama. Ele era um advogado de seu distrito e mais tarde serviu como juiz do Sétimo O circuito. Ele se mudou para Cahaba, Alabama, em 1858. Em 1861, ele foi um comissário no Mississippi, onde seu irmão, John J. Pettus, era o governador. Ajudando no recrutamento do 20º Alabama, ele foi eleito major daquela unidade e, em seguida, foi promovido a tenente-coronel em outubro de 1861. Ele lutou com aquela unidade em batalhas no Western Theatre e foi capturado com sua unidade com a rendição de Vicksburg . Após ser trocado, foi promovido a coronel do 20º Alabama, após a promoção e posterior morte do general Isham Gerrott. Pettus foi promovido a general de brigada em 18 de setembro de 1863. Ele lutou em todos os combates importantes de Chattanooga a Bentonville, incluindo a invasão de Hood s do Tennessee. Ferido na campanha das Carolinas em Bentonville, Pettus estava na rendição do general Joseph Johnston antes de voltar a morar em Selma, Alabama. Ele retomou sua prática jurídica e foi ativo nos assuntos democráticos do estado. Ele finalmente se ofereceu para servir em um cargo público em 1896.

Notas sobre Pettus - Sua unidade foi o 20º Alabama. Fontes originais entraram em conflito sobre se esta unidade era do Alabama ou Arkansas. Pesquisas adicionais revelaram que era uma unidade do Alabama. O nome de Pettus foi anexado a uma ponte em Selma, que foi o local de um conflito entre manifestantes dos Direitos Civis liderados por Martin Luther King Jr. e as autoridades policiais em 7 de março de 1965. Estranhamente, isso aconteceu 20 anos após o outro famoso conflito em uma ponte. 7 de março de 1945 foi a data em que as tropas da Nona Divisão Blindada (27ª Infantaria Blindada) capturaram a Ponte Ludendorff em Remagen.

A propósito, devo lhe dar uma lista de quais caras foram designados, já que você está começando a se aproximar daquele ponto do alfabeto em que não pode ter certeza de que um cara ainda está disponível para uma biografia. Por favor, me lembre se eu não postar esta informação nos próximos dias.

1) Polignac's Texas Brigade, de Alwyn Barr, 1998, mas apenas 68 páginas.

2) Lafayette do Sul, Príncipe Camille de Polignac e a Guerra Civil Americana, de Jeff Kinard, 2001, 234 páginas.

Ambos foram publicados pela Texas A & M University Press como parte de sua Série de História Militar, e 1) é o nº 60 e 2) é o nº 70 dessa série.

Um pouco de humor sobre Polignac, seus texanos ou texanos rudes se referiam a ele como 'General Polecat', e Polignac sabia disso, e na pequena batalha em Vidalia, LA, ele gritou & quotSiga-me! Me siga! Você me chama de 'Polecat'. Vou lhe mostrar se sou 'Polecat' ou 'Polignac', pois seus três regimentos de texanos avançaram em linha dupla com suas bandeiras de batalha hasteadas. página 36 do livro 1).

& lt Mensagem editada por christof139 -- 20/03/2007 4:00:41 & gt


Gen Brig Camille Armand Jules Marie, Príncipe de Polignac (nascido em 1832, morto em 1913). Alguém poderia escrever um livro inteiro sobre as aventuras de Polignac (grande parte do qual consistiria em seu extenso nome). Polignac, que se tornaria o cidadão estrangeiro de melhor posição a servir em ambos os lados da Guerra Civil, nasceu em Miltemont, Seine-et-Oise, França, em 16 de fevereiro de 1832. Ele era filho do presidente do conselho de ministros do rei Carlos X e de mãe inglesa. Ele recebeu educação no Colégio de Stanislaus em Paris e ingressou no 3º Regimento de Chasseurs em 1853 como particular após ser reprovado no exame de admissão para a Ecole Polytechnique, a academia militar francesa. Polignac serviu com o 4º Hussardos como tenente durante a Guerra da Crimeia, e mais tarde foi transferido para o 4º Chasseurs antes de ser dispensado em 1859. No início da Guerra Civil, Polignac estava na América Central. Tendo conhecido P.G.T. Beauregard e o futuro membro do gabinete confederado Judah P. Benjamin durante uma visita à cidade de Nova York antes da guerra, ele imediatamente ofereceu seus serviços à Confederação e foi comissionado como tenente-coronel em 16 de julho de 1861. Em 1862, serviu na equipe do Gens. Beauregard e então Braxton Bragg, vendo ação em Shiloh e Corinth e juntando-se a Bragg para sua invasão do Kentucky em 1862. Apesar do desempenho exemplar em Kentucky, especialmente enquanto servia sob o Brig. Divisão do general Patrick Cleburne na Batalha de Richmond em 29 de agosto, Polignac falhou em obter o comando de campo que desejava até que pressionou pessoalmente o Pres. Jefferson Davis e o general Samuel Cooper, o ajudante geral. Polignac foi promovido a general de brigada em 10 de janeiro de 1863, e no final de maio havia chegado ao teatro trans-Mississippi, onde muito de seu serviço veio no general Richard Taylor Distrito de West Louisiana. Colocado no comando da 2ª Brigada do Texas, que o general Kirby Smith chamava de uma multidão indisciplinada , Polignac logo reinou sobre os homens, que o apelidaram de General Polecat em vez de tentar pronunciar seu nome corretamente, e os tornou um efetivo força de combate. Polecat e seus texanos lutou com distinção durante a campanha do Rio Vermelho, especialmente nas batalhas de Mansfield e Pleasant Hill. Foi na Batalha de Mansfield, que aconteceu na Paróquia De Soto, Louisiana, em 8 de abril de 1864 e foi o primeiro grande confronto da Campanha do Rio Vermelho da União, que Polignac ganhou grande fama: quando o Brig. O general Alfred Mouton, que comandava a 2ª Divisão de Infantaria de Taylor, foi morto enquanto liderava sua brigada de carga, Polignac assumiu o comando da divisão, que sofreu 40% de baixas ao paralisar uma divisão da União e capturar duas baterias de artilharia. Dois meses depois, em 13 de junho, ele foi promovido a major-general, desde o dia em que desempenhou um papel vital em Mansfield. Para comemorar o melhor momento de Polignac, todo descendente primogênito do sexo masculino foi chamado de Mansfield. Perto do fim da guerra, o governo confederado enviou Polignac à França para tentar buscar a intervenção do governo de Napoleão III. Ele executou o bloqueio em 17 de março de 1865 e chegou à Espanha pouco antes do fim da guerra. Após a guerra, ele estudou matemática e economia política, mas saiu da aposentadoria militar para liderar a 1ª Divisão francesa durante a Guerra Franco-Prussiana. Premiado com a Legião de Honra, Polignac voltou ao estudo da matemática e desenvolveu uma reputação no campo antes de sua morte em Paris em 15 de novembro de 1913. Polignac, que foi enterrado em Frankfurt, foi o último major-general da Confederação a morrer. (Biografia de Bill Battle)

Liderança: 6
Tático: 5
Iniciativa: 3
Comando: 5
Cavalaria:

Ensina: Explodido (15), Organizado (24), Francês

Os & quotorphans & quot presos a oeste do rio Mississippi foram eventualmente organizados em 8 companhias e combinados com um Batalhão independente do Texas para se tornarem a 17ª Cavalaria Consolidada. Esta unidade não poderia ser armada até que Talor derrotasse a primeira tentativa de Nathaniel Banks de invadir o Texas em 1863. Armas suficientes foram capturadas do Exército & quotComissário & quot Banks para equipar o regimento. O primeiro coronel foi James R. Taylor, anteriormente comandante de companhia no 17º Regimento de Cavalaria do Texas (Desmontado) e, portanto, o título de unidade. A batalha de Mansfield em abril de 1864 destruiu efetivamente o regimento como força de combate. Apenas 200 efetivos foram deixados na perseguição do Exército de Banks após a batalha em Mansfield (também chamado de Sabine Crossing). O coronel Taylor foi morto depois de suceder Polignac no comando da brigada e o tenente-coronel Nobles foi morto liderando o regimento na captura da bateria de artilharia Mercantile de Chicago. Os sobreviventes foram novamente consolidados em um grupo do tamanho de uma empresa e vinculados à Divisão do Texas de Walker pelo resto da guerra.

& lt Mensagem editada por Whit -- 26/03/2007 17:22:08 & gt

E, como desenvolvedor de jogos, estou grato por não termos tentado fazer um jogo da Guerra Civil no nível da empresa. Nossa!

A primeira correção foi para o estilo, pois havia dois & quotserved & quot próximos um do outro.

Estou me perguntando se a referência a 7000 guerreiros "ferozes" é uma citação direta de algum lugar - se for assim, devemos colocá-la entre aspas.

Além disso, retirei a frase Van Dorn ignorou o comando de Pike em seus relatórios porque não consegui descobrir seu significado e porque isso interrompeu a narrativa.

Brigue. Gen. Albert Pike (nascido em 1809, morto em 1891). O que diabos um Whig nascido em Boston estava fazendo como general-brigadeiro confederado encarregado das tropas nativas americanas no Arkansas? Isso é apenas parte da vida complexa de Albert Pike. Nascido em Boston em 29 de dezembro de 1809, Pike teve muitas realizações em sua vida além do serviço militar. Ele foi lembrado como um brilhante professor, poeta, autor, advogado, editor e expoente da Maçonaria - pode-se dizer que ele também foi um comedor prolífico, já que pesava mais de 150 quilos. De 1824 a 1831, Pike ensinou em escolas da Nova Inglaterra. Ele deixou o nordeste em 1831, chegando a Independence, Missouri, onde se juntou a um grupo de caçadores e comerciantes com destino a Santa Fé, Novo México. Ele se estabeleceu em Arkansas em 1833 e começou a lecionar em uma escola no Condado de Pope. Ele também foi editor de jornal, poeta, advogado e fazendeiro antes do início da Guerra Civil. Um Whig que se opôs à secessão, Pike finalmente deu seu apoio à nova nação depois que o Arkansas deixou a União e decidiu usar seus laços com as nações indígenas - ele ganhou um caso enquanto representava a Tribo Creek contra o Governo Federal - para tentar ganhe seu apoio para a causa confederada. Pike foi comissionado general de brigada em 15 de agosto de 1861. Devido às suas boas relações com as "Cinco Tribos Civilizadas", o governo confederado pediu-lhe para recrutar tropas indígenas, e deu-lhe o comando do Departamento de Território Indígena. Pike prometeu ao general Earl Van Dorn, que havia sido colocado no comando do Distrito Trans-Mississippi em setembro, que ele teria 7.000 guerreiros ferozes prontos para a ação, mas acabou liderando uma brigada de quatro regimentos indígenas no Arkansas que totalizou cerca de um terço da força prometida. Na Batalha de Elkhorn Tavern (Pea Ridge) em 7 a 8 de março de 1862, as tropas de Pike derrotaram uma bateria da União sob o comando do coronel Peter Osterhaus. No entanto, os homens pararam para comemorar e pesquisar os equipamentos e suprimentos abandonados, e, portanto, não estavam preparados para um contra-ataque que os expulsou do campo e até mesmo levou alguns deles de volta ao Território Indiano imediatamente. Posteriormente, foi acusado de que os homens de Pike escalpelaram vários soldados da União mortos e feridos. Pike defendeu suas tropas, afirmando que elas foram recrutadas apenas para a defesa de seu território. O próximo comandante de Pike no teatro Trans-Mississippi, o general Thomas Hindman, discutiu com ele sobre o manuseio de dinheiro e material, e quando Hindman ordenou sua prisão, Pike desapareceu no Arkansas, fugindo da captura. General Douglas Cooper, que no final de 1863 assumiria o comando no Território Indiano, comentou que Pike era "insano ou mentiroso para o Sul". Pike renunciou à sua comissão em 12 de julho de 1862 e a renúncia foi aceita em 5 de novembro. Pike permaneceu em semi-aposentadoria pelo resto da guerra. Depois, ele teve que lidar com acusações federais, mas foi capaz de recuperar seus direitos civis. Pike voltou a exercer a advocacia depois de se mudar para Memphis, antes de aceitar uma posição como porta-voz nacional da Maçonaria. Pike morreu na casa do Templo do Rito Escocês em Washington, D.C. em 2 de abril de 1891 e foi enterrado no cemitério de Oak Hill. (Biografia de Bill Battle)

Liderança: 1
Tático: 2
Iniciativa: 1
Comando: 1
Cavalaria:

Data de início: 15
Data de morte : 36

Brigue. Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow (nascido em 1806, morto em 1878). Um general da Guerra do México, Pillow ocupou o posto de major-general com dois exércitos diferentes, mas era apenas um general de brigada no serviço confederado. Ele é talvez mais notável, no entanto, por suas falhas de personalidade e capacidade de colecionar inimigos pessoais e políticos. Pillow nasceu no condado de Williamson, Tennessee, em 8 de junho de 1806. Graduado em 1827 pelo Cumberland College em Nashville, ele foi advogado em Columbia, Tennessee com James K. Polk, mais tarde presidente dos Estados Unidos. Polk, cuja nomeação como candidato democrata foi planejada por Pillow, nomeou-o brigadeiro-general de voluntários em 1846 para a Guerra do México, e seu ex-parceiro de advocacia mais tarde o ajudou a garantir o posto de major-general também. Pillow não teve medo de entrar no grosso da batalha, e como resultado foi o dobro feridos na campanha da Cidade do México. Apesar de sua bravura, Pillow não gostava dos dois comandantes do exército, Gens. Winfield Scott e Zachary Taylor, por sua briga, mas ele foi defendido por Polk. Em 1849, Pillow se apresentou a dois tribunais de inquérito para defender sua conduta na Guerra do México, e em ambas as vezes foi inocentado. Entrando na política, Pillow tentou, sem sucesso, fazer a chapa democrata para vice-presidente em 1852 e 1856, e ganhar uma cadeira no Senado dos EUA em 1857. Quando o Tennessee se separou em 1861, Pillow foi nomeado major-general das tropas estaduais e colocado no comando de 22 regimentos de infantaria, 10 companhias de artilharia e dois regimentos de cavalaria. Posteriormente, ele foi comissionado como general de brigada no Exército Provisório da Confederação em 9 de julho de 1861. A primeira ação de Pillow veio na Batalha de Belmont (Missouri), contra o general Ulysses S. Grant, em 7 de novembro. Pillow era o segundo em comando em Fort Donelson, a fortaleza confederada no rio Cumberland que foi crucial para a defesa de Nashville, sob o general John B. Floyd quando as forças de Grant sitiaram o forte. A inimizade de Pillow com o general Simon B. Buckner, que comandava a outra divisão confederada ali, afetou severamente sua capacidade de montar uma defesa coordenada e estava entre os fatores que levaram à captura do forte. Realizing that the fort would ultimately be taken, on February 15, 1862 the Confederates attempted to break out, but their effort failed in no small part because Pillow fumbled his initial success by grasping beyond his reach. Bottled up in the fort once more, that night the senior command recognized defeat as inevitable. Instead of surrendering themselves alongside their men, Floyd passed command to Pillow, who in turn left Buckner in charge, and Floyd and Pillow then fled across the river on a skiff, leaving Buckner, an old friend of Grant, to surrender the next morning. (Pillow justified his decision at the time by declaring, according to witnesses, that There were no two persons in the Confederacy whom the Yankees would prefer to capture than himself and General Floyd. Ironically, when told this by Buckner, Grant scornfully stated, I would rather have him in command of you fellows than as a prisoner. ) Pillow spent the rest of the year attempting to justify his actions both in the press and in an endless series of letters to government officials. He did receive a brief brigade command at the Battle of Murfreesboro on December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863, but it was his last major wartime assignment. He was assigned to the volunteer and conscript bureau in Tennessee and became commissary general of prisoners after Gen. J.H. Winder died. Pillow s final field command came in an attempt to harass enemy supply lines, but this effort failed and he returned to his previous duty. After the war, he returned to practice law in Memphis with former Governor Isham G. Harris as his partner, but eventually went bankrupt. Pillow died from yellow fever near Helena, Arkansas on October 8, 1878. (Bio by Bill Battle)

Leadership: 2
Tactical: 1
Initiative: 1
Command: 0
Cavalry:


Edmund Winston Pettus House Site

Edmund Winston Pettus, lawyer, General C.S.A., U.S. Senator, was born Limestone County, Alabama, 1821.
Admitted to bar, 1842.
Moved to Cahaba, 1858.
Major, C.S.A., 1861.
Brigadier General, 1863.
U.S. Senator, 1897-1907.
Resided here from 1866 until death, 1907.
When in Senate, with John T. Morgan, Selma was home of both U.S. Senators from Alabama.

Erected 1972 by Alabama Historical Association.

Tópicos This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Government & Politics &bull War, US Civil. A significant historical year for this entry is 1821.

Localização. 32° 24.375′ N, 87° 1.383′ W. Marker is in Selma, Alabama, in Dallas County. Marker is on Alabama Avenue east of Mabry Street, on the right when traveling east. Toque para ver o mapa. Marker is in this post office area: Selma AL 36701, United States of America. Toque para obter instruções.


Biography: Edmund Winston Pettus born July 6, 1821 – photograph

EDMUND WINSTON PETTUS

BIOGRAPHY and GENEALOGY

(1821- 1907)

Limestone, Cahaba, Sumter and Dallas County, Alabama

Edmund Winston Pettus, United States senator from Alabama, was born, July 6, 1821, to John and Alice Taylor (Winston) Pettus.

His father was born in Fluvanna County, Virginia where he was a planter.

John Pettus moved to Davidson County, Tennessee around the turn of the century and in 1807 married Alice Winston, daughter of Anthony Winston, a Revolutionary War Veteran as well as a member of the Virginia convention of 1775. Patrick Henry was a first cousin of Anthony Winston and his son John Anthony Winston, was the first native-born governor of Alabama. Alice was born in Buckingham County, Virginia. General Jackson was a friend and danced at their wedding.

In 1809, John and Alice Pettus moved to Madison county, Alabama then to Limestone County, Alabama where Edmund Pettus was born. John died in 1822 in Limestone County, Alabama but Alice survived him nearly sixty years, dying in 1878. She was living with Edmund in 1870 Selma, Dallas County, Alabama census.

Edmund Winston Pettus

Edmund Winston Pettus was educated in the common schools and at Clinton college, Tennessee and studied law with William Cooper, of Tuscumbia. then the leader of the bar in Northern Alabama. In 1838, he married Mary Lucinda Chapman (b. November 24, 1823, Huntsville, Madison Co., AL – July 15, 1906, Selma, Dallas County, AL)

He was admitted to the bar in 1842 and began practice at Gainesville, Alabama and fought in the Mexican War. In 1844 he was elected solicitor of Sumter county, a post he resigned when, in 1849, he was carried by the gold excitement to California. Returning after spending two years on the Pacific slope, he located at Carrolton, in Pickens county.

WHERE DO I START? Hints and Tips for Beginning Genealogists with On-line resources

In 1852, he took up the duties of solicitor in that county and discharged them for two years. His administration of the office of solicitor had brought him prominently before the people, and in 1855 he was elected judge of the seventh judicial district. He resigned the judgeship in 1858 and removed to Cahaba in Dallas county, where he continued to live until the breaking out of the war between the States.

Edmund Winston Pettus

While the south was negotiating and planning for such co-operation as should render secession a fixed fact, Judge Pettus was dispatched a commissioner from Alabama to the state of Mississippi. As Mississippi was the scene of his first work in behalf of the Confederacy, it furnished the scene of martial exploit with which his name is widely associated. This occurred at the siege of Vicksburg. The enemy had captured a redoubt that was of great strategic importance and Gen. Stephen D. Lee ordered that it be retaken,in spite of the manifestly dangerous character of the attempt. It fell to the lot of Lieut. Col. Pettus that he should get the order to retake the redoubt. He promptly accepted the duty and called for volunteers.

It looked then as if to volunteer meant that the volunteer would go forth to certain death. Men shrank away. There was, however, there a body of men made of as stern stuff as the officer himself. Waul’s Texas legion volunteered in a body. Selecting forty of them, and, together with three Alabamians who had also volunteered, Col. Pettus stormed the redoubt, captured it and carried away 100 prisoners and three of the enemy’s flags.

He entered the army in August 1861 and was made major of the Twentieth Alabama infantry. He was shortly afterward promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was with Gen. Kirby Smith in the Kentucky campaign of 1862. In. the succeeding winter he was assigned to Mississippi, and was in the engagement of Port Gibson and Baker’s Creek and was shut up in Vicksburg. In October 1863, he was appointed brigadier-general and took command of the twentieth, twenty-third, thirtieth, thirty-first and forty-sixth Alabama regiments. His command saw constant service to the end of the war, being at Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, at Atlanta, Nashville and at Bentonville. His only wound was received at Bentonville.

Edmund and Mary Lucinda (Chapman) Pettus had the following children:

  1. Virginia Pettus
  2. Lucy T. Pettus ( b. ca. 1845) married John E. Roberts before 1880
  3. Mary N. Pettus (b. ca. 1853) (b. ca. 1859 d. 1901 in Montgomery, Alabama. In 1880, he married Mary Eleanor Knox (b. ca 1855- July 20, 1942) Francis and Mary had a daughter named Alice

In August 1861, he entered the army as a major of the Twentieth Alabama infantry and made lieutenant-colonel shortly afterward. Edmund became colonel on the death of Col. Garrot He became brigadier-general in September 1863. He achieved distinction as a soldier at Rocky Face Ridge, New Hope Church, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, in the operations about Atlanta and in storming a redoubt at Vicksburg.

After the war he returned to his law practice, steadily declining any political honors for many years, although he might have had years ago any office within the gift of the people of the State. In 1896 he was nominated, without his own solicitation, for the office of United States senator. After his nomination, he received more votes in the legislature than there were Democratic members, and on March 4, 1897, he took his seat as the successor of James L. Pugh

Although new to the business of a legislator in the Congress of the United States his long experience in the law, his active participation in and familiarity with political affairs, and the wide range of his information on public questions soon placed him in the front rank of senators. At the close of his first term ,he was re-elected, his died before his term expired on July 27, 1907, at the age of 86 and is buried in Dallas County, Alabama, at Live Oak Cemetery along with his wife, Mary Lucinda who died July 15, 1906.

The Edmund Winston Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, a civil rights landmark, is named after him.


Sommaire

Jeunesse et formation

Edmund Pettus naît en 1821 dans le comté de Limestone, en Alabama [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Il est le fils cadet de John Pettus, et Alice Taylor Winston, le frère de John J. Pettus, et un lointain cousin de Jefferson Davis [ 1 ] . Pettus suit sa scolarité dans les écoles publiques locales, et, plus tard, est diplômé du Clinton College situé dans le comté de Smith, au Tennessee [ 3 ] .

Pettus étudie alors le droit à Tuscumbia, en Alabama, avec William Cooper comme professeur et est inscrit au barreau de l'État en 1842. Peu de temps après, il s'installe à Gainesville et commence à pratiquer en tant qu'avocat.La même année, il est élu procureur de la septième Cour itinérante de l'Alabama [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] .

Avant la guerre de sécession

Au cours de la guerre américano-mexicaine en 1847-49, Pettus, sert comme lieutenant avec les volontaires de l'Alabama, et après les hostilités, il part pour la Californie, où il participe à des actions paramilitaires contre les Yukis et d'autres Indiens d'Amérique [ 1 ] .

En 1853, de retour en Alabama, il sert à nouveau dans la septième cour itinérante en tant que procureur. Il est nommé juge dans cette cour en 1855 jusqu'à sa démission en 1858. Pettus déménage ensuite dans la ville, maintenant disparue, de Cahaba dans le comté de Dallas, en Alabama, où il reprend son travail en tant qu'avocat [ 6 ] .

Guerre de Sécession

En 1861, Pettus, un partisan enthousiaste de la cause confédérée et de l'esclavagisme, est un délégué du parti démocrate à la convention de sécession qui se tient au Mississippi, où son frère John sert comme gouverneur. Pettus contribue à l'organisation du 20° régiment d'infanterie de l'Alabama, et est nommé comme l'un de ses premiers officiers [ 7 ] . Le 9 septembre, il est commandant dans le régiment, et, le 8 octobre, il devient lieutenant-colonel.

Pettus, sert sur le théâtre occidental de la guerre de Sécession. Pendant la campagne de Stones River, il est capturé par les soldats de l'Union le 29 décembre 1862, puis échangé un peu plus tard contre des soldats de l'Union. Pettus est capturé à nouveau le 1 er mai 1863, faisant partie de la garnison se rend après avoir défendu Port Gibson au Mississippi. Toutefois, il parvient à s'échapper et retourner dans ses propres lignes. Pettus est promu colonel le 28 mai, et reçoit le commandement du 20th Alabama Infantry.

Au cours de la campagne de Vicksburg de 1863, Pettus et son régiment font partie de la force de défendant le contrôle confédéré du fleuve Mississippi. Lorsque la garnison capitule le 4 juillet, Pettus, est de nouveau prisonnier jusqu'à son échange le 12 septembre. Six jours plus tard, il est promu brigadier général [ 8 ] et le 3 novembre, il reçoit le commandement d'une brigade dans l'armée du Tennessee. Pettus et sa brigade participent à la campagne de Chattanooga, postés à l'extrême sud de la pente de Missionary Ridge le 24 novembre et se battent le jour suivant [ 9 ] , [ 10 ] , [ 2 ] , [ 11 ] .

Pettus, et son commandement prennent part lors de la campagne d'Atlanta de 1864, combattant lors des batailles de Kennesaw Mountain le 27 juin , d'Atlanta le 22 juillet, et de Jonesborough du 31 août au 1 er septembre . À partir du 17 décembre , il conduit provisoirement une division de l'armée du Tennessee [ 12 ] . Par la suite, lors de la campagne des Carolines de 1865, Pettus est envoyé pour défendre Columbia, en Caroline du Sud, et participe à la bataille de Bentonville du 19 au 21 mars. Pettus est blessé dans ce combat, touché à la jambe droite, peut-être une blessure auto-infligée, selon certaines sources, au cours de la première journée de la bataille. Le 2 mai , il est libéré sur parole à Salisbury, en Caroline du Nord, et, après que la reddition de la Confédération à Appomattox, Pettus est gracié par le gouvernement des États-Unis le 20 octobre.

Après la guerre

Après la guerre, Pettus retourne en Alabama et reprend son activité d'avocat dans son cabinet de Selma. Avec des bénéfices de son cabinet, il achète des terres agricoles.

Pettus sert en tant que président de la délégation de l'État à la convention nationale démocrate pendant plus de deux décennies [ 2 ] .

En 1877, au cours de la dernière année de la reconstruction, Pettus est nommé Grand dragon du Ku Klux Klan de l'Alabama [ 2 ] , le Ku Klux Klan est avec les lois Jim Crow [ 13 ] , [ 14 ] , [ 15 ] , [ 16 ] , [ 17 ] , un des dispositifs des états du Sud pour s'opposer par tous les moyens violents possibles (assassinats, attentats, viols, tortures, enlèvements, incendies d'écoles et d'églises afro-américaines) à l'application des nouveaux droits constitutionnels des Afro-Américains garantis par plusieurs amendements au lendemain de la Guerre de Sécession : le Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis du 6 décembre 1865 abolissant l'esclavage, le Quatorzième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis de 1868, accordant la citoyenneté à toute personne née ou naturalisée aux États-Unis et interdisant toute restriction à ce droit, et le Quinzième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis, de 1870, garantissant le droit de vote à tous les citoyens des États-Unis.

En 1896, à l'âge de 75 ans, Pettus est candidat pour le Sénat des États-Unis en tant que démocrate, et remporte l'élection en battant le titulaire James L. Pugh. Sa campagne s'appuie sur son succès dans l'organisation et la popularisation du Klan de l'Alabama et son opposition aux droits civiques des Afro-américains, partisan de la ségrégation raciale.

Le 4 mars 1897 , il est élu au Sénat des États-Unis, et est réélu en 1902 [ 10 ] .

Il tient avec John Tyler Morgan un discours commémoratif d'élus du Congrès, le 18 avril 1908 au Sénat puis le 25 avril 1908 à la Chambre des représentants [ 18 ] .

Vie personnelle

Le 27 juin 1844 , Pettus épouse Mary L. Chapman, le couple donne naissance à trois filles, Virginia Pettus, Lucy T. Pettus, Mary N. Pettus, et un fils Francis Leigh Pettus [ 11 ] .

Pettus meurt à Hot Springs, en Caroline du Nord, durant l'été 1907. Il est enterré dans l'Old Live Oak Cemetery de Selma [ 19 ] .


Edmund Pettus

Edmund Winston Pettus (born July 6, 1821 in Limestone County , Alabama , † July 27, 1907 in Hot Springs , North Carolina ) was an American politician ( Democratic Party ). He represented the state of Alabama in the US Senate and was a high-ranking member of the Ku Klux Klan .

Edmund Pettus was the youngest of John Pettus and Alice Taylor Winston's nine children and a distant relative of Southern President Jefferson Davis . John J. Pettus , governor of Mississippi, was an older brother.

After completing his schooling in Alabama and Tennessee , Pettus studied law , passed the bar exam in 1842 and practiced as a lawyer in Gainesville . In 1844 he was elected Solicitor for the Seventh District Court . He served as a lieutenant in the Mexican-American War . From 1855 to 1858 he worked as a judge in the seventh judicial district.

After the outbreak of the Civil War , Pettus joined the Confederate Army . First he was operations staff officer of the 20th Alabama Infantry Regiment with the rank of major , one month later deputy regimental commander and in May 1863 as a colonel its regimental commander. He took part in the second Vicksburg campaign and was eventually promoted to brigadier general.

When the war ended, Pettus returned to Alabama and worked as a lawyer in Selma , Alabama. From 1877 he headed the Ku Klux Klan as the "Grand Dragon of the Realm of Alabama" . As a Democrat, he was a member of the US Senate from March 4, 1897 until his death on July 27, 1907.

In Selma, the Edmund Pettus Bridge was named after him. This gained national fame on March 7, 1965, when a protest march of the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King led over it and its members were brutally attacked by the local police after crossing the bridge.


Kings of the Confederate Road

Two writers — one black, one white — journey to Selma, Alabama, in search of "Southern heritage." This is their dialogue.

Tad Bartlett is a white man who grew up in Selma, Alabama, then moved to New Orleans later in life. Maurice Carlos Ruffin and L. Kasimu Harris are black men born and raised in New Orleans. Along the way, they all became friends. On May 19, 2017, the three gathered to watch as the Robert E. Lee statue was removed from Lee Circle near downtown New Orleans, then on the July Fourth holiday, they traveled to Selma to examine what Southern heritage means in our shared world. This article is Tad's and Maurice's conversation about that road trip, with Kasimu's pictures documenting the adventure.

Words by Maurice Carlos Ruffin e Tad BartlettPhotographs and captions by L. Kasimu Harris

Tad Bartlett: I’d had a three-margarita lunch. Perhaps that was a little excessive, with the added mezcal, but it was a day for drinking. The sky was blue and the air was warm and soft more importantly, Robert E. Lee was finally coming down. I took my third margarita in a go-cup and walked the couple blocks to the west side of Lee Circle.

A crowd of several hundred were gathered on the barricaded street and in the adjoining gas station parking lot, festive, smiling, occasionally craning their heads up at the statue. A crane rose above Lee, its hook swaying over his head not unlike a noose, while workers rigged him for the final hoisting.

The statue sympathizers had been laying siege to other statues in New Orleans for the previous month, waving Confederate battle flags, League of the South flags, and Trump flags, engaging in screaming matches with locals as first one statue and then another were removed, but on the day Lee came down they must have been on the other side of the traffic circle. On our side was only love and a significant police presence. One fellow showed up with a large speaker on a bike trailer and acted as the DJ for the event. Midnight Star’s “Freak-a-Zoid” caught my ear that was big at the Selma Skating Rink when I was 11. The margaritas had been a good decision. Later, during Prince’s “When Doves Cry,” a unicyclist weaved in and out of the crowd, rhythmically swirling a leopard-print scarf, while two schoolkids and two old ladies began double-dutch jump-roping.

All afternoon the crews had struggled to get a strap around the statue, loosening bolts, examining up close then backing their movable platform down, conferring endlessly. It started to seem like the statue might never come down. Decades had passed since activists, including Marie Galatas, Avery Alexander, Malcolm Suber, Leon Waters, and more recently the Take ’Em Down Nola group formed in 2014 and led by Suber, Michael “Quess?” Moore and Angela Kinlaw, had begun advocating removal of the monuments and other memorials to white supremacy in New Orleans. Almost two years had passed since Mayor Mitch Landrieu had joined in the cause in the wake of the massacre of black worshippers by a Confederate-inspired terrorist at Emanuel A.M.E. Church in Charleston. The statue-removal had been tied up for the past year and a half in federal court by pro-statue groups, and almost a month had passed since the final court judgment allowing the removal to go forward. A lot of pressure had built up.

Then, as I awaited Maurice and Kasimu, Lee popped off his pedestal.

I had expected something more — a wrenching loose, a crumbling of marble, a clanging of iron, an anguished rebel yell, a gospel choir, sirens, thunder, earthquakes, a plague of locusts, the death angels and melting Nazi faces from “Raiders of the Lost Ark,” something, but the removal was ultimately notable for the silent peacefulness with which Lee lifted off. I felt a physical release, like a tooth that had been too long loose had just let go of the last dangling nerve tethering it to the socket where it was no longer useful.

Tad Bartlett and Maurice Ruffin after the removal of the Robert E. Lee statue in New Orleans, talking with Michael "Quess" Moore of Take 'Em Down NOLA, and Jeff Thomas

Maurice Ruffin: I knew very well that the removal of the Robert E. Lee Horcrux, as I called it, would be a historic moment. That’s why I missed it. My attitude toward the monuments flap, which began evolving with the yelling matches at City Hall in 2015, had reached its nadir. The intensifying stream of anonymous racist rhetoric online over the year of removal debates had convinced me the four monuments had to go. After each of the first three were removed, I’d visited each site and celebrated each time. But by the date of the final removal, something in me had changed. Monuments are symbols that hold power over people, I thought. And now this stupid, old statue of Robert Eddie Lee held power over me.

“Looks like it’s happening,” Tad’s text said, as I shrugged my feet into boots and ran out of the house.

I arrived in time to find an empty plinth. The statue was tucked behind a large, nearby truck while the work crew, masked to hide their faces from people who might identify and hurt them, hauled it onto a flatbed. I convened with Tad and Kasimu, but when the police escort mobilized, Kasimu took off running. He wanted a good shot. Tad and I lumbered after him.

What I remember most about the statue, which lay horizontal on the flatbed that crept by, was how at peace this object of intense controversy looked. Lee’s arms were crossed, his eyes so dark they seemed closed. His skin was the color of mushrooms, and mushrooms reminded me of death. I hadn’t missed witnessing a removal. I’d missed a funeral.

Lee Circle, New Orleans, moments after the statue was removed from its towering pedestal.

TB: We’d decided the day before Lee’s statue came down that the three of us would go to Selma after the statue removal was done, that I would bring Maurice and Kasimu to my old hometown and introduce them to the people and place from which I’d long ago escaped. We would explore this idea of Southern heritage — “heritage” meaning more than one group’s frozen snapshot, but a full vision of a collective past that shaped a divided present and that could suggest a unified future — for two towns, for a region, for a country.

We carved out 48 hours over the July Fourth holiday. As the day of our departure grew closer, I became anxious we wouldn’t be able to pull it off — that Selma might disappoint my two New Orleans friends in some way, that it might be too stuck in the past, or too small in its concerns or that my memory was too large, too inaccurate or that Selma wouldn’t want to give me the time of day.

I’d made a playlist to make the drive less anxious — songs I’d listened to on the tape deck of my old hatchback when I drove around Selma on weekend nights, punk music, hip-hop, jazz, poets, protest songwriters, geniuses. Maurice, Kasimu, and I listened to those songs as we headed out of New Orleans late afternoon on July 3, as we turned off the Interstate north of Mobile, onto U.S. Highway 43, through the little towns of Creola, MacIntosh, Mount Vernon, and across the Tombigbee River into Jackson.

MR: I’ve never liked the South. I don’t hate the place where I was born and have always lived. I’m not even bitter about it. I’m just not much of a fan. Porque? There’s a moment that happens anytime I travel anywhere south of the Mason-Dixon line with friends. It’s usually a fleeting incident — what the woke kids call a microaggression, a term that makes me think of a mosquito landing on my thigh. But these moments never fail to remind me that I have a place and that some people want to make sure I understand where that place is. The moments usually happen so quickly they almost don’t register. Whenever I realize what’s going on, my cheeks get hot and I’m always a bit embarrassed that it’s happening. Like getting caught on a jumbotron while you’re scarfing down a hot dog.

This trip’s Moment occurred after I placed an order at an old-timey burger joint Tad insisted was a slice of Americana Pie. At this place, they take your money when you order, but don’t take your name or give you a ticket or anything. Then, you sit and wait. Eventually, someone calls out the contents of your order, and you go get it. I sat at a picnic table and watched a group of teens and tweens. One girl playfully tortured her little brother. Then, the cheerful kids got their grub from the counter. This is the South, I thought. This is America.

Finally, my order came up. At the window, a pretty girl in a blue T-shirt held my order like you might hold a puppy by the scruff of its neck.

“Did you pay for this?” she asked, skeptically. I considered for a moment that maybe mistakes were made. Maybe they had given me a receipt, and I lost it. Or maybe they asked for my name, and I forgot to give it. Maybe I really hadn’t paid for the food, after all. Quem sabia? Perhaps someone else ordered the exact same thing. It’s such a funny thing to gaslight yourself.

My stomach turned, my cheeks warmed, and my heart raced. I was furious, but bit my tongue. Losing my temper after sunset in rural Alabama couldn’t possibly end well for me.

“Why yes.” I smiled, “I paid. Promise.” The girl extended her arm and plopped the bag into my hands. I went back to the table. Tad shot me a look.

“The craziest thing,” I said.

TB: We drove out of Jackson past crowds of teenagers pulled over to the side of the road, grouped together atop the hoods and trunks of their cars, in pickup beds, all watching to the freshly darkened western sky. Fireworks a day early, as in so many little towns worried about getting up early to go to work on the fifth day of July.

Up U.S. 43 through the Alabama night, through Grove Hill and on to Thomasville, where my family had lived for a year, when I was 5, in a two-bedroom apartment in a complex with a Doberman Pinscher who left teeth marks in me more than once, an old lady who fed kids sugar cubes that she’d soaked in brandy and then lit on fire, and some asshole who threw my Big Wheel into the kudzu-lined ravine next to the parking lot. Then up state Highway 5 through Pine Hill, where my Dad worked in the paper mill, then up state Highway 22 and into Selma, where we’d moved when I was 6.

It was nearing 10:30 p.m. on July 3 when we pulled up to the St. James Hotel on Water Avenue. Built in 1837, it had been the grand hotel where the planters stayed when they came to ship cotton and buy people. It survived the burning of much of the town in 1865 after Union Gen. James Wilson’s troops defeated the Confederates guarding Selma.

We put our stuff down in our corner suite and stepped out onto the balcony overlooking the river, glasses of rye whiskey in hand. To our right, perched in humid air over gurgling water, was the Edmund Pettus Bridge, as real and mythical as ever.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, Alabama.

MR: Whenever I arrive in a new place, I consider escape routes. This was hard to do upon arriving in Selma because we’d traveled a narrow, country road long after dark. The hotel didn’t reassure me. The lobby was full of pictures of the white people who came together to refurbish the building after it fell into decades of ruin. The house style was Baroque furniture, glazed fixtures, ornate carpets. I wondered whose bodies the money was extracted from to create this place.

Just when I began thinking the place was too much of a metaphor for the whole South, I noticed a room off the lobby called The Planters’ Parlor. “Planter” is a euphemism for the men who shipped black people to plantations and worked them to death without pay. A parlor is a place for relaxation or games. But it’s also a place, such as in a monastery, where monks converse with travelers seeking enlightenment. I didn’t want enlightenment from the ghosts who once reclined in that room, so I grabbed my luggage and took my black ass upstairs.

After drinks, Kasimu and Tad headed out for a midnight walk around.

TB: Kasimu made me nervous at first with the photographs he was trying to capture of the old Washington Street Grocery. He seemed oblivious to the groups of young black men gathered around parked cars, music blaring, bass booming, drinking from paper-sacked cans and bottles, throwing stern looks our way. But in my nervousness I felt not just a little like another typical scared white man, and I kept my mouth shut.

I shadowed Kasimu through a parking lot and down a sidewalk past more groups hanging out. Then, a car passed by, windows down, young women inside laughing and partying to music on a hot summer night, and I felt calmer. I was once again Tad who used to live here. How time can stretch forever and change you, then vanish in an instant.

Gunshots popped behind us. Once, twice, three times. Cars sped toward us from the direction of the shots, turned the corner onto Broad in each direction, all leaving the scene.

“Come on, stay down, move,” Kasimu said, and we moved, staying close to the storefronts, pausing for a moment before crossing an open lot, moving back in the direction of the hotel. More cars sped down the street.

We knocked to be let into the lobby by a security guard.

“Hear anything?” Kasimu asked him.

The security guard paused for a moment. “Always something happening in Selma,” he said, then turned and looked back out the front windows.

TB: It was a quiet holiday morning as we walked out of the hotel. We met no one on our one-block walk to the foot of the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

Edmund Winston Pettus was a delegate to the Alabama secession convention in 1861. The infantry units he commanded surrendered to Union forces three times in 1862 and 1863. He later commanded brigades in the Confederates’ losing battles in Chattanooga, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. After the war, he was named the Grand Dragon of the Alabama Ku Klux Klan and was elected twice to the U.S. Senate based on “his virulent opposition to the constitutional amendments following the Civil War that elevated former slaves to the status of free citizens,” as journalist Errin Whack wrote for Smithsonian two years ago.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge is not known for this failed military man and white supremacist, but for the horrors and bravery of a series of Civil Rights marches in 1965. It’s known for John Lewis’s blood, for mounted posse-men’s chains and barbed-wire-wrapped clubs, for tear gas and screams. It’s known for a march two weeks later led arm-in-arm by Lewis, Martin Luther King Jr., and local pastor and activist Frederick D. Reese (also the principal of Selma High School my senior year).

As a kid, I’d hung out underneath the bridge, its shadows a salve to summer heat, the river water’s shimmering reflections on its underside, car tires percussing across expansion joints above.

MR: The Civil Rights park across the river at the base of the Pettus Bridge saddened me. I had been to the Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, the Martin Luther King National Historic Site in Atlanta, the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. There was a magnificence to each, and they were well-maintained and crowded with visitors.

The Selma site couldn’t have appeared more of an afterthought. Here I was at the site of one of the most dramatic confrontations of the Civil Rights Movement, but the park seemed as if it had been thrown up overnight like graffiti. The site sat off to the side, in the crook of the bridge’s elbow. If you tossed a burger wrapper out of your car, this is where it would land.

Sleek, funereal monoliths sat next to flimsy, vinyl banners honoring unknown slaves and soldiers. Several wooden pavilions were arrayed toward the riverbank, rotting in the morning heat and humidity.

Someone cared about the park. People had used their own money and sweat to place the monuments here. But the people who did this were fighting a losing battle. They didn’t have the money, clout, or community support to do what should be done properly.

I looked back up at the bridge and realized I didn’t know anything. I claimed support for the people who put their bodies on the line in the 1960s. But I dishonored them with my indifference. Tive vergonha. I was a bandwagon activist.

TB: We drove to the Old Live Oak Cemetery, where dirt paths meander through dappled shade of oak and magnolia trees draped in Spanish moss. I used to spent afternoons wandering the gravestones, piecing together stories of infants and mothers born as long ago as the late 1700s and of young men killed in battle, names known and unknown. I’d made out with girls there, written angsty teen-ager poems.

In 2015, the local United Daughters of the Confederacy — the “Friends of Forrest,” named for Nathan Bedford Forrest, the original Klan Grand Wizard and the Confederate general who lost the Battle of Selma — gained ownership of a one-acre circle in the middle of the cemetery. They erected tall flagpoles featuring the Confederate battle flag and the stars-and-bars, a bust of Forrest, and security cameras. They also regularly plant small Confederate battle flags throughout the cemetery, a bloody flag field like fire in the sunlight. The Friends of Forrest have long been helmed by Pat Godwin, who describes her role in promoting the Confederate cause and the memory of Forrest as “providential. … [O]ur Lord has allowed me to be just a small part in this effort to pay homage to Gen. Forrest that is properly due him, especially here in Selma….”

A bust of Confederate general and Ku Klux Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest in the Old Live Oak Cemetery

MR: What surprised me most was how little I felt. I was standing beneath a tall post-Reconstruction obelisk dedicated to the Confederacy. It seemed every other headstone was decorated with a little Confederate flag. A few yards away sat a cannon that fired munitions at the Union soldiers who came to liberate people who looked like me. The inscription on the bust of Forrest lauded him as a “Wizard of the Saddle.” But my heart didn’t race. I guess I was confused.

To be clear, I hate the Confederacy and all it stands for, but I was struck by the fact that I was actually in the heart of the Confederacy. Whereas New Orleans did not vigorously fight to oppose the Union’s liberation, an actual battle took place in Selma. Men, whether I agreed with them or not, fought and died here.

I had a fleeting thought that, if the Confederacy couldn’t have a monument here, then where could they? This was the effect standing in a cemetery in the Heart of Dixie had on me. Like I said, I was confused.

TB: We were in for pleasant graveyard company, my old friend Vaughan Russell. An older pillar of the Selma community, Vaughan is a lawyer and municipal judge. When I was in high school, I appeared before him on a reckless driving ticket. One summer in college, I worked for him as a law clerk. My senior year of high school, Vaughan was my lawyer, representing me when two white vice-principals at the high school tried to expel me.

In 1990, the six white school board members voted against the five black school board members to end their contract with the city school system’s first black superintendent, Dr. Norward Roussell, a bright and innovative educator from New Orleans. I was one of the students leading a series of protests supporting his contract’s renewal. I received telephoned death threats, “nigger lover” notes under my windshield, and an anonymous letter accusing me of being an “anti-white racist against your own race.” The two white vice-principals began interrogating me for a couple hours every day about an unsubstantiated rumor about drinking on a debate team trip. They yelled at me that they’d suspended “two of them black kids” for drinking after a track meet and they would by-God expel me.

So, Vaughan and I have some history. Plus he’s proudly and compassionately liberal in a small Southern town, an example I’ve taken to heart. Together, we strolled around the Confederate Circle. “Now there used to be markers here for the unknown Union soldiers killed in the Battle of Selma where are they?” Vaughan said as we walked among the low old gravestones.

“I thought I remembered markers for Union soldiers, too,” I said, “but figured maybe I was misremembering.”

“Oh, no, you were remembering right.” There were a handful of blank spots in the otherwise even rows of stones.

Vaughan regaled us with stories from his family’s past. He pointed to a plot near the Confederate Circle, where one of his Civil War-era ancestors was buried. I asked Vaughan, with his family’s long ties to Selma, what his feelings were as to the battle flag and the “heritage” arguments.

“The Confederate battle flag has its place in museums,” he answered. “I do not connect on any level with those who would carry it in public or display it as an item with current meaning. I’m named for a captain who served in the cavalry for the CSA, but after he returned home and at his death, he loved both his region and his country, or at least that is what I have been told by my grandmother. I would like to think that some of the vestiges of his character remain with me.”

No such character appears to reside in the motives of Godwin and her ilk, the ones who had taken a peaceful spot in the cemetery and turned it into a segregationist-era wet dream of Confederate battle-flag paraphernalia. In an April 2013 post on one “Southern Heritage” Facebook page, Godwin referred to Selma as “Zimbabwe on de Alabamy,” and to the fight to dedicate public space to a statue of Forrest as a “Jungle Campaign.” In another post submitted to a pro-Confederate website in 2012, she wrote that “… there is NO justice for white folks anymore,” continuing, “I am as President Davis … one without a country … that is until we reconvene in Montgomery, Alabama once again as a GOVERNMENT OF OUR OWN!” The genteel Daughters of the Confederacy, ladies and gentlemen.


Edmund Pettus Bridge

The Edmund Pettus Bridge crosses the Alabama River in Selma, Alabama. The bridge was the site of a landmark event in the history of the civil rights movement that became known as “Bloody Sunday.” On that day in 1965, white law-enforcement officers violently dispersed African American protesters as they crossed the bridge during the Selma March.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge is a four-lane bridge made of steel and concrete. The bridge measures some 1,248 feet (380 meters) in length and is located in Selma’s historic city center. Workers completed the bridge in 1940, and city officials named it for Edmund Winston Pettus. Pettus was born in Alabama and was from a family of wealthy cotton planters who owned enslaved persons. During the American Civil War, Pettus joined the Confederacy and quickly moved up the ranks to become a general. He was a member of the Ku Klux Klan and in his later years served as a U.S. senator.

In 1965 civil rights activists gathered in Selma to protest voting rights violations against African Americans. The activists planned a march from Selma to Montgomery, the state’s capital, on Sunday, March 7, 1965. After the marchers crossed the bridge, however, they encountered sheriff’s deputies, deputized civilians, and dozens of state troopers. The police told the marchers to leave, but, before they could, the state troopers advanced. They threw tear gas, spat on the marchers, and attacked them with clubs and whips. More than 50 marchers were injured.

After the incident the Edmund Pettus Bridge stood as a symbol of the fight for African American civil rights. The U.S. government designated it a National Historic Landmark in 2013. Because of Pettus’s connection with slavery and white supremacy, civil rights activists beginning in the early 21st century petitioned to have the bridge renamed. Many proposed that it be named after activist and politician John Lewis, one of the African American leaders of the march on Bloody Sunday. In the aftermath of renewed Black Lives Matter activism in 2020 as well as Lewis’s death that same year, interest resurfaced in renaming the bridge after him.

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