A história

Linha do tempo da Batalha de Bosworth



10 coisas que você precisa saber sobre a batalha de Bosworth

A batalha de Bosworth, travada em 22 de agosto de 1485, foi o último confronto significativo da Guerra das Rosas. Os exércitos do rei Yorkista Ricardo III foram derrotados por Henrique Tudor (mais tarde Henrique VII), que marcou o fim da dinastia Plantageneta e marcou o nascimento da era Tudor. Ricardo III foi morto durante a batalha brutal. Mas como Richard III morreu? Aqui, Chris Skidmore, autor de Bosworth: o nascimento dos Tudors, traz para você 10 fatos sobre uma das batalhas mais famosas da história da Inglaterra

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Publicado: 22 de agosto de 2020 às 3h30

Para muitos, 22 de agosto de 1485 continua sendo uma das datas principais da história britânica. No entanto, o que exatamente aconteceu nas primeiras horas da manhã (a batalha terminou ao meio-dia) ainda permanece tentadoramente evasivo. Então, quais são os fatos?

Muitos mitos em torno de Bosworth permanecem prevalentes - estimulados pela imaginação de Shakespeare, cujas famosas palavras, "Um cavalo, um cavalo, meu reino por um cavalo", colocadas na boca do derrotado Ricardo III, ocasionalmente ainda são contadas como parte do Descrição narrativa. Apesar de décadas de pesquisa sobre o que exatamente aconteceu em Bosworth e onde exatamente a batalha foi travada, parece que a verdade permanece inconveniente quando se trata de contar uma boa história.

Isso não deve impedir ninguém de saber os fatos básicos de uma das batalhas mais famosas da história da Inglaterra, no entanto. Então, para qualquer pessoa interessada em saber o máximo possível 'o que aconteceu', aqui estão 10 coisas-chave para ter em mente ...

A batalha de Bosworth não foi realmente travada em Bosworth

Só ficou conhecida como a batalha de Bosworth cerca de 25 anos depois de ter sido travada. Em vez disso, os contemporâneos a conheciam como a batalha de ‘Redemore’, que significa lugar de juncos. Outros nomes para a batalha incluem ‘Brownheath’ e ‘Sandeford’.

O local onde o conflito ocorreu agora está localizado a três quilômetros do centro do campo de batalha, perto dos vilarejos de Dadlington e Stoke Golding. A paisagem teria sido uma planície pantanosa (mais tarde a ser drenada), atravessada por uma estrada romana.

É difícil imaginar a escala da batalha

O exército de Ricardo III, com cerca de 15.000 homens, era aproximadamente três vezes o tamanho do exército de Henrique Tudor com apenas 5.000 homens. Enquanto isso, os irmãos Stanley (padrasto de Henry Tudor, Thomas Lord Stanley e Sir William Stanley) tinham cerca de 6.000 homens entre eles. Esses números significavam que o local da batalha teria que se estender por vários quilômetros.

Ao mesmo tempo, Richard tinha um arsenal militar impressionante

Um relato menciona 140 canhões, enquanto as buscas arqueológicas no campo de batalha encontraram mais de 30 disparos de canhão - mais do que qualquer outro descoberto em um campo de batalha medieval europeu.

Henry Tudor desembarcou no País de Gales em 7 de agosto e marchou mais de 320 quilômetros pela Inglaterra

Ricardo III ficou "muito feliz" ao saber de seu desembarque, confiante de que derrotaria o "rebelde". O rei estava tão confiante que até demorou um dia em deixar sua base em Nottingham para celebrar um dia de festa.

Um novato quando se tratava de batalhas, Henry Tudor permaneceu estacionado na retaguarda do campo, enquanto suas forças eram lideradas pelo general Lancastriano, John de Vere, o conde de Oxford, que também liderou a vanguarda de Henrique

Entre as duas forças estava um pântano, que Oxford conseguiu contornar, mantendo o pântano à sua direita, antes de lançar um ataque contra a vanguarda de Ricardo III, liderado pelo idoso John, duque de Norfolk.

Foi o esmagamento da vanguarda de Ricardo por Oxford que começou a virar a batalha por Henrique: as tropas de Ricardo começaram a abandoná-lo

Em particular, sua "retaguarda" - 7.000 homens liderados por Henry Percy, o conde de Northumberland - parou e "nenhum golpe foi dado ou recebido", sugerindo que os homens de Northumberland foram mantidos fora da ação. Talvez eles não tenham conseguido cruzar o pântano.

Alternativamente, contos da traição de Northumberland eram abundantes. Mais tarde, ele foi morto por seus próprios apoiadores por "decepcionar" Richard. Seja qual for a causa, o fato de que a metade traseira do exército de Ricardo não se envolveu na batalha deixou o rei em sérios problemas.

Neste podcast, o historiador e político Chris Skidmore oferece sua visão de momentos cruciais, como a tomada do trono de Richard, sua morte em Bosworth e o desaparecimento dos príncipes na torre:

Richard foi oferecido um cavalo para fugir da batalha, mas recusou

“Deus me livre de ceder um passo”, ele teria dito. “Hoje morrerei como rei ou vencerei”. Richard avistou os estandartes de Henrique Tudor (que logo seria Henrique VII) e decidiu atacá-lo com sua cavalaria montada, talvez cerca de 200 homens no total, usando a coroa sobre o capacete.

A batalha em torno dos padrões foi brutal

Todos os relatos atestam a força de Richard na batalha. Mesmo John Rous, que comparou Richard ao Anticristo, admitiu "se posso dizer a verdade a seu crédito, embora pequeno de corpo e frágil de membros, ele se portou como um cavaleiro galante e agiu com distinção como seu próprio campeão até o último respiração".

Richard derrubou Sir John Cheyney, que com 1,98 m de altura era o soldado mais alto de sua época, enquanto o porta-estandarte de Henry, Sir William Brandon, era morto. O porta-estandarte do próprio Ricardo, Sir Percival Thribald, teve ambas as pernas cortadas debaixo dele, mas ainda conseguiu se agarrar ao estandarte do rei.

Foi só quando Henry estava em "perigo imediato" que os Stanleys - ou melhor, Sir William Stanley - vieram em seu auxílio, colidindo com os homens de Richard e jogando-os no pântano

Sir William não teria nada a perder se Richard tivesse vencido - ele já havia sido declarado traidor dias antes. Seu astuto irmão mais velho, Thomas Lord Stanley, apesar de ser casado com a mãe de Henry Tudor, Margaret Beaufort, parece ter achado melhor ficar fora da batalha por completo. Quando Henry foi coroado em uma colina próxima, uma fonte relatou que foi Sir William Stanley, e não seu irmão, quem colocou a coroa na cabeça de Henry.

Graças à descoberta dos restos mortais de Richard, agora sabemos em detalhes como Richard deve ter encontrado seu fim

Um relatório atribui sua morte a um alabardeiro galês - a alabarda sendo uma arma semelhante a um machado na ponta de uma vara de seis pés de comprimento. O capacete do rei parece ter sido cortado (há marcas de corte na mandíbula do crânio, sugerindo que a tira do capacete foi cortada) para expor sua cabeça.

Várias marcas de goiva na frente do crânio parecem ter sido causadas por uma adaga, talvez em uma luta. Em seguida, as duas feridas que teriam matado Richard incluem a parte de trás de seu crânio sendo revestida pelo que parece ser uma alabarda se isso não o matasse, uma lâmina de espada enfiada da base do crânio direto através do cérebro certamente teria feito o trabalho.

Neste podcast, após o importante anúncio em 2013 de que o corpo encontrado em um estacionamento de Leicestershire era de fato Ricardo III, falamos com o arqueólogo de Leicester Lin Foxhall e Phil Stone, presidente da Sociedade Ricardo III, para obter uma visão interna dos acontecimentos :

Richard foi então colocado no dorso de um cavalo, amarrado como um porco (sua insígnia) com suas "partes privadas" expostas, para ser levado a Leicester, onde seu corpo foi colocado em exibição pública.

Em conclusão, Bosworth permanece uma batalha com um apelo duradouro: não é simplesmente um conto de derrota e vitória, mas também de traição e intriga. Mas, como as recentes descobertas mostraram, a própria história da batalha permanece muito viva, com nossa compreensão de onde a batalha foi travada e como exatamente Ricardo III morreu sendo completamente transformada nos últimos anos. A história de Bosworth, 529 anos depois, continua bem viva.

Chris Skidmore é o autor de Bosworth: o nascimento dos Tudors (Weidenfeld & amp Nicholson, 2013)

Este artigo foi publicado pela primeira vez pela HistoryExtra em agosto de 2014


Um campo de batalha perdido e encontrado

Com base nas teorias escritas disponíveis em 1973, o Conselho do Condado de Leicestershire escolheu Ambion Hill Farm para ser o local do primeiro Centro de Interpretação do Campo de Batalha do país para comemorar e contar a história dos eventos sangrentos de 22 de agosto de 1485, que aconteceram nos campos agora tranquilos de South West Leicestershire.

Desde que as primeiras exposições foram abertas nos estábulos da fazenda em setembro de 1974, houve várias fases de desenvolvimento, incluindo extensões, novas galerias e exposições temporárias.

Em 2005, uma doação do Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) permitiu a atualização da exposição à luz do pensamento mais recente sobre o campo de batalha. Isso incluía uma galeria dedicada a como a localização do campo de batalha havia sido perdida para a história e como, com o financiamento da HLF, o trabalho estava em andamento para localizar a cena da ação que havia sido calorosamente debatida por 30 anos.

O Bosworth Battlefield Survey, liderado pelo Dr. Glenn Foard do Battlefields Trust, durou cinco anos, combinando pesquisa documental, topográfica e de campo. O projeto teve como objetivo reconstituir a paisagem de 1485, incluindo o famoso pântano de Shakespeare, e localizar qualquer evidência da Batalha. Um levantamento de detecção de metal em uma enorme área de terra finalmente recuperou uma coleção única de balas de canhão medievais e uma série de pequenos itens perdidos pelos combatentes na Batalha.

O mais icônico deles é o Bosworth Boar, que foi encontrado em 2009.

O Battlefield Survey provou que a batalha foi travada cerca de uma milha a sudoeste de Ambion Hill de cada lado da Fenn Lane.

Algumas das peças de metal do século 15 encontradas durante a Pesquisa do Campo de Batalha.

O tiro de 34 rounds encontrado em uma ampla área ao redor da Fenn Lane

O minúsculo emblema prateado do javali, que pode marcar onde o rei Ricardo fez sua última resistência.

Esses artefatos estão em exibição na galeria Bosworth Quest.


Um pouco sobre a Grã-Bretanha

A Batalha de Bosworth é um daqueles eventos que mudaram o curso da história. Lutado em 22 de agosto de 1485, Bosworth foi o último encontro armado significativo das chamadas Guerras das Rosas, a luta dinástica medieval entre as casas de York e Lancaster e seus aliados, que durou cerca de três décadas. Os Lancastrianos venceram em Bosworth, o Rei Ricardo III foi morto e o rebelde Henrique Tudor ascendeu ao trono da Inglaterra como Rei Henrique VII. Então Muito de aconteceu sob os Tudors - exploração do mundo, a Reforma, o início do Império Britânico - quem pode dizer onde a Grã-Bretanha teria acabado se esta família notável não existisse? Provavelmente não haveria Igreja da Inglaterra ou seríamos todos espanhóis. Bosworth é um daqueles lugares onde a história foi feita e vale a pena lembrar disso se você visitar o lugar.

A reputação de Ricardo III como um vilão distorcido é amplamente baseada na propaganda Tudor e na peça, escrita por Shakespeare, durante o reinado da neta de Henrique VII, Elizabeth. Como duque de Gloucester, Ricardo serviu lealmente a seu irmão mais velho, o rei Eduardo IV. Seu casamento com Anne Neville, filha do conde Warwick, "o fazedor de reis", deu-lhe uma riqueza fabulosa e controle efetivo do norte da Inglaterra, que, segundo todos os relatos, ele governou bem e com habilidade. Quando Edward morreu inesperadamente em 1483, seu filho mais velho, Edward V, ainda era menor de idade e o tio Richard tornou-se Lorde Protetor. A rainha viúva, Elizabeth, e seus parentes de Woodville, rapidamente decidiram trazer o jovem rei de Ludlow para Londres com o objetivo de coroá-lo o mais rápido possível. Richard pode ter se sentido ameaçado por isso ou pela perspectiva de uma tomada do poder em Woodville. Em qualquer caso, Richard interceptou Edward e sua comitiva, prendeu Earl Rivers (o irmão da Rainha) e Sir Richard Gray (o filho da Rainha com seu primeiro casamento) e escoltou seu sobrinho provavelmente perplexo para os apartamentos de estado na Torre de Londres. Diz-se que Richard começou a suspeitar de traição a seu respeito. Lord Hastings, que tinha sido o principal conselheiro de Eduardo IV, foi preso e sumariamente decapitado. A rainha, no santuário da Abadia de Westminster, foi persuadida a entregar seu filho mais novo, o duque de York, de 9 anos, que se juntou ao irmão mais velho na Torre. Dizia-se que o casamento de Eduardo IV e Elizabeth Woodville era bígamo, os jovens príncipes foram declarados ilegítimos e o duque de Gloucester foi convidado a se tornar Ricardo III. Earl Rivers e Sir Richard Gray foram executados no Castelo de Pontefract. Um levante liderado pelo duque de Buckingham foi facilmente reprimido (inevitavelmente, o duque foi executado) e tudo deveria estar seguro no mundo de Ricardo.

Mas o apoio já estava se reunindo em torno de Henrique Tudor, um lancastriano descendente de Eduardo III e a viúva de Henrique V, Catarina de Valois. Henry, no exílio na Bretanha, tentou um pouso para coincidir com a rebelião de Buckingham, mas retirou-se quando soube do fracasso do duque. A posição de Richard deteriorou-se gradualmente em uma atmosfera de crescente desconfiança geral. Os jovens ‘Príncipes na Torre’ haviam desaparecido - quase certamente assassinados, mas por ordem de quem? O filho de Richard e Anne (outro Edward) morreu no Castelo de Middleham em 1484 - seus pais ficaram arrasados ​​- deixando Richard sem um herdeiro legítimo. Anne morreu em 1485, alguns disseram que Richard a envenenou para se casar com Elizabeth de York, sua sobrinha. Enquanto isso, os aliados de Henry Tudor e sua mãe, Margaret Beaufort, estavam ocupados fazendo amigos e promessas. Margaret era casada com seu quarto marido, o imensamente poderoso Thomas Stanley lembra os Stanley - eles são importantes.

Henrique desembarcou em Milford Haven em 7 de agosto de 1485. Ele tinha uma pequena força de exilados e tropas estrangeiras - certamente não o suficiente para derrotar o Exército do Rei - e esperava reunir mais enquanto marchava pelo País de Gales e pela Inglaterra. Richard, ciente de que o problema estava se formando, baseou-se em Nottingham e convocou seus seguidores assim que soube do desembarque. Ele também tomou a precaução de manter o filho de Thomas Stanley, Lord Strange, como refém.

No momento em que os dois exércitos se encontraram naquela manhã de agosto, cinco séculos ou mais atrás, as forças de Ricardo talvez totalizassem 15.000 homens, dos quais cerca de 6.000 estavam sob o comando dos Stanleys. O exército de Henrique era consideravelmente menor - talvez apenas 5.000. O local da batalha em Leicestershire foi em grande parte um pântano, nas proximidades de Ambion Hill, possivelmente em um lugar conhecido como Redemore, entre as aldeias de Sutton Cheney e Stoke Golding. A localização precisa da luta tem sido uma questão de debate, mas os arqueólogos e historiadores acreditam que já a tenham definido.

Foi uma batalha curta - um relato diz que tudo acabou em cerca de duas horas. O processo provavelmente começou com um bombardeio de artilharia limitado e uma troca de flechas, mas parece que as forças de Ricardo sob o duque de Norfolk rapidamente se fecharam sobre as comandadas pelo conde de Oxford em nome de Henrique. Seguiu-se uma luta corpo a corpo feroz, com os homens de Norfolk sendo gradualmente empurrados para trás. Um dos capitães de Ricardo o incentivou a fugir, mas dizem que ele respondeu: "Hoje, morrerei como rei ou vencerei". Ninguém, mesmo seus inimigos, jamais duvidou da coragem de Richard. A história conta que ele liderou um ataque contra Henry e sua comitiva, derrubando o formidável porta-estandarte de Henry e abrindo caminho em direção a seu rival. Naquele momento, os Stanleys, situados à parte do exército de Ricardo, decidiram intervir ao lado do pretendente, decidindo o curso da batalha. Richard foi arrancado de seu cavalo e caiu sob uma torrente de golpes cortantes. Agora podemos dizer com alguma confiança que, além de outros ferimentos, a parte de trás da cabeça de Richard foi cortada e, se isso não o matou, um golpe de espada da base do crânio em seu cérebro certamente o fez.

De acordo com a lenda, a coroa do campo de batalha de Richard (um diadema de ouro) foi descoberta pendurada em um arbusto espinhoso após a batalha e colocada na cabeça de Henry por Lord Stanley. Ricardo, o último rei inglês a morrer em batalha, provavelmente não esperava perder. A traição dos Stanley foi decisiva e também parece que parte do exército de Richard, as 7.000 tropas de Henry Percy, o conde de Northumberland, nem mesmo estavam engajadas. Mais traição? Ou talvez eles não pudessem cruzar o terreno pantanoso. O corpo nu de Richard foi levado para Leicester, onde foi exposto e provavelmente abusado - o preço do fracasso naquela época.

Richard tinha apenas 32 anos e foi enterrado na igreja dos Greyfriars, embora por muitos anos persistisse um boato de que seu corpo havia sido jogado sem cerimônia no rio Soar. Um cairn foi erguido em Bosworth Field no século 19, sobre um poço que ele teria bebido antes da batalha. Então, em fevereiro de 2013, foi confirmado que um esqueleto encontrado sob um estacionamento municipal indefinido em Leicester, no local da Igreja de Greyfriars, era o do Rei Ricardo. Foi um trabalho incrível de detetive, tanto para encontrar o esqueleto quanto para provar sua identidade. E reacendeu os debates sobre se Ricardo III era um rei "bom" ou "mau" - conceitos que precisam ser julgados no contexto da Grã-Bretanha medieval. Ele foi corajoso e provavelmente nunca disse: “Um cavalo, um cavalo, meu reino por um cavalo”. Ele também foi um produto de sua idade implacável e ainda acho que ele assassinou seus sobrinhos.

De qualquer forma, voltando à Batalha de Bosworth, onde as baixas foram surpreendentemente poucas - provavelmente não mais do que 1.200 mortes no total. Há um Centro de Visitantes Bosworth agora, situado em Ambion Hill, onde o exército de Richard se agachou antes da batalha. Isso oferece estacionamento fácil (pago e expositor), um café (em um antigo celeiro do dízimo), exposição / museu e loja de presentes. De forma um tanto preocupante, eles anunciam uma experiência no campo de batalha de Bosworth - então você pode querer perder isso, mas eventos especiais são realizados lá, incluindo uma encenação anual em torno do aniversário da batalha. Nem a exposição nem a loja de presentes estavam abertas quando liguei, embora o café servisse um café aceitável. Uma trilha leva ao redor do campo de batalha e há excelentes marcadores que destacam os pontos de interesse. Alguns fornecem um comentário de áudio ao longo das linhas de, "Oim pobre Fred de Norfolk e foi dito para me curvar e lutar pelo rei" - você sabe o tipo de coisa. Apesar disso, é um passeio agradável, sem esforço, ao longo de uma trilha bem mantida em meio a campos agradáveis, árvores - e uma quantidade surpreendente de pássaros. Tentei imaginar a cena como ela era há mais de 500 anos. No entanto, minha imaginação fértil foi desafiada por uivos distantes de algum tipo de pista de corrida e um helicóptero voando acima. A tarefa ficou ainda mais difícil porque eu não tinha certeza de onde a ação aconteceu. Mas, em algum lugar por aqui, pensei, olhando vagamente através de Ambion Wood, havia o trovão de canhões, o relinchar dos cavalos, o tilintar dos arreios, o choque de armas, os rugidos e os gritos dos homens e o destino do mundo tomou outro curso. Estou feliz por ter ido.

Você também pode se aproximar do campo de batalha da estação ferroviária de Shenton (a antiga linha ferroviária parece passar pelo campo de batalha). Alguns quilômetros ao norte fica a pequena e agradável cidade de Market Bosworth, de aparência próspera, que finalmente deu à batalha seu nome duradouro e que vale uma visita para um café e um pão - ou algo um pouco mais forte, talvez. Você pode encontrar lojas ao ar livre anunciando, final da temporada, "Agora é o inverno de nossa barraca de descontos".


Batalha de Bosworth Field, 22 de agosto de 1485

A batalha de Bosworth Field (22 de agosto de 1485) foi a grande batalha final da Guerra das Rosas, e viu o pretendente lancastriano ao trono, Henry Tudor, derrotar e matar Ricardo III, o último dos monarcas Yorkistas.

No início de 1483, a dinastia Yorkista parecia estar firmemente estabelecida no trono inglês. Eduardo IV ainda era bastante jovem. Ele tinha dois filhos saudáveis, os príncipes Edward e Richard. O príncipe Eduardo tinha apenas 12 anos, mas seu tio Ricardo de Gloucester era um defensor leal do rei e deveria apoiá-los se alguma coisa acontecesse com seu pai.

A causa lancastriana havia sofrido um golpe esmagador em 1471. No início daquele ano, o ex-rei Henrique VI ainda estava vivo e acabara de ser recolocado no trono, enquanto sua esposa Margaret de Anjou e seu filho adolescente, o príncipe Eduardo, estavam na França esperando o momento certo para voltar. Eles escolheram errado, e o jovem príncipe foi morto na Batalha de Tewkesbury (4 de maio de 1471). Henrique VI foi morto quando Eduardo retornou a Londres, e a reivindicação Lancastriana recaiu sobre Henrique Tudor, conde de Richmond.

A afirmação de Henry Tudor era válida, embora um pouco fraca. John de Gaunt, o terceiro filho de Eduardo III, teve quatro filhos com sua amante Katherine Swynford. Em 1396, Gaunt se casou com Swynford, e em 1397 Ricardo II legitimou seus filhos, dando-lhes o sobrenome de Beaufort. Em 1407, o meio-irmão de Beaufort, Henrique IV, confirmou sua legitimidade, mas também os barrou da sucessão ao trono.

Margaret, a mãe de Henry Tudor, era filha única de John Beaufort, primeiro duque de Somerset, filho de John Beaufort, o mais velho dos filhos de Gaunt e Swynford. Ela era, portanto, a bisneta de John de Gaunt.

Tudor era quase desconhecido na Inglaterra. Ele nasceu em 1457, enquanto Henrique VI ainda estava razoavelmente seguro no trono, e cresceu no País de Gales. Seu tio Jasper Tudor foi forçado ao exílio após as vitórias Yorkistas de 1461, e Henry foi criado por William Herbert. Em 1469, quando Henry tinha apenas 12 anos, Herbert foi assassinado por ordem do conde de Warwick.

No ano seguinte, Warwick restaurou brevemente Henrique VI ao trono, e Jasper Tudor foi capaz de retornar e recuperar o controle de Henrique, mas em 1471 Eduardo IV recuperou o trono. Jasper Tudor passou a maior parte de 1471 no País de Gales tentando manter viva a causa Lancastriana, mas os eventos de 1471 deixaram Henry Tudor como o pretendente Lancastriano ao trono e em setembro Jasper Tudor decidiu que seria mais seguro buscar refúgio na França. A tentativa de fuga deu errado quando as tempestades forçaram os Tudors a pousar na Bretanha. O duque Francisco II da Bretanha era um aliado de Eduardo e, embora se recusasse a entregar os Tudors a Eduardo, ele restringiu sua liberdade. De 1471 até a morte de Eduardo em 1483, Henry Tudor viveu uma vida bastante restrita na Bretanha.

A Usurpação de Ricardo III

Em 9 de abril de 1483 Eduardo IV morreu após uma curta doença. Ele foi sucedido por seu filho Eduardo V e, como quase sempre acontecia, a sucessão de um menor foi seguida por uma luta pelo poder. Nesse caso, a luta era entre o tio do novo rei, Ricardo de Gloucester, e a família de sua mãe, os Woodville. Em 30 de abril, Ricardo assumiu o controle do jovem rei em Stony Stratford, antes que ele pudesse chegar a Londres, e nas semanas seguintes a maioria dos Woodville foi eliminada.

No início, as ações de Richard não causaram muito alarme, pelo menos fora da família Woodville. Ele havia sido nomeado protetor do rei no testamento de Eduardo IV e, portanto, assumir o controle pessoal do rei não era nada chocante. Os Woodville eram impopulares, então seu destino não perturbou muitas pessoas. Se Richard tivesse parado neste ponto, a dinastia Yorkista provavelmente estaria segura. Ele poderia ter governado como regente de seu sobrinho pelos próximos dez anos e a reivindicação de Henry Tudor teria desaparecido da memória.

Em vez disso, Richard decidiu tomar o trono e, ao fazê-lo, começou a ganhar uma reputação de sanguinário que logo o faria perder muitos apoiadores. Em 13 de junho, ele executou um de seus primeiros apoiadores, William Hastings, Lord Hastings. Em 17 de junho, o príncipe Ricardo foi forçado a deixar o santuário e juntou-se a seu irmão Eduardo na Torre. Em 22 de junho, o dia em que deveria ter visto a coroação de Eduardo, o Dr. Ralph Shaw pregou um sermão público em St. Paul's no qual pediu a Richard para assumir o trono. Em 26 de junho, Henry Stafford, duque de Buckingham, outro aliado de Ricardo, apresentou-lhe uma petição fazendo o mesmo pedido e, em 6 de julho, Ricardo foi coroado rei Ricardo III.

Logo depois disso, os dois Príncipes na Torre desaparecem de vista. Na época, a suposição geral era de que Richard os havia matado e ele nunca foi capaz de apresentar os príncipes para contestar isso. Durante o resto de seu reinado, houve muitas ocasiões em que o aparecimento dos dois príncipes teria sido útil para Ricardo, e seu fracasso em produzi-los sugere fortemente que eles estavam de fato mortos. Dada a história da família Yorkista e os eventos de 1471, parece improvável que Ricardo tivesse permitido que dois rivais em potencial pelo trono continuassem vivos por dois anos.

A natureza da usurpação de Ricardo, combinada com o desaparecimento dos dois príncipes, rapidamente começou a minar sua posição. A primeira tentativa de derrubá-lo ocorreu em outubro de 1483 e envolveu outro de seus primeiros aliados, o duque de Buckingham. Essa revolta revelou a grande fraqueza da posição de Richard. Ao usurpar o trono, ele estilhaçou o establishment Yorkista. Ele tinha o apoio de grande parte da antiga afinidade de Neville no norte, mas estava perdendo o apoio da antiga afinidade de York. Entre os rebeldes estavam partidários de Woodvilles e membros da casa de Eduardo IV, incluindo o cunhado do velho rei, Sir Thomas St. Leger. Entre os primeiros líderes da conspiração estavam dois dos irmãos Woodville - o marquês de Dorset e o bispo de Salisbury. A conquista do trono de Ricardo também encorajou os lancastrianos, tanto em casa quanto no exterior. O maior choque foi que o duque de Buckingham, que poucos meses antes ajudara Ricardo a subir ao trono, aderiu à conspiração. Seus motivos são desconhecidos, mas talvez inclua uma preocupação crescente de que ele possa compartilhar o destino de Lord Hastings. Os conspiradores também atraíram Henry Tudor. Sua mãe agora estava casada com Lord Stanley, administrador de Richard e um de seus apoiadores mais importantes, mas isso não a impediu de conspirar em favor de seu filho exilado.

O plano parece ter sido para uma série de levantes, em Kent, no sudoeste e na área de Wiltshire-Berkshire, todos os quais deveriam começar em outubro. Buckingham levantaria um exército em Brecon e Henry Tudor desembarcaria na costa sul. Richard seria dominado por todos esses ataques. Em vez disso, Richard foi capaz de lidar com cada ameaça por vez. Buckingham falhou em reunir o tipo de apoio que deve ter esperado, especialmente de Lord Stanley, que permaneceu leal a Richard. Buckingham chegou perto de Hereford antes de perder a coragem e abandonar seu exército. Ele foi traído por um de seus apoiadores e decapitado na frente do rei em Salisbury em 2 de novembro. Henry Tudor chegou até a costa sul, onde soube que a revolta havia entrado em colapso, e voltou para a Bretanha. O rápido colapso da revolta teve uma conseqüência inesperada - a maioria dos líderes rebeldes conseguiu escapar para o continente, e um considerável tribunal no exílio começou a se formar em torno de Henry Tudor.

O objetivo da revolta de Buckingham era colocar Henry Tudor no trono, uma indicação clara de que a maioria das pessoas acreditava que os príncipes na Torre já estavam mortos. Tudor agora se tornou uma espécie de candidato de unidade, combinando uma reivindicação Lancastriana ao trono com um apoio em grande parte formado por partidários Yorkistas alienados por Richard. Em 25 de dezembro de 1483, Tudor deu um passo adiante e fez um juramento público de se casar com Elizabeth de York, a filha mais velha de Eduardo VI.

1484 viu ambos os lados se preparando para o confronto inevitável. O ano começou com o único parlamento de Richard. Os três principais eventos do parlamento foram o reconhecimento do filho de Richards, Eduardo de Middleham, como herdeiro do trono, a personificação da petição de junho de 1483 pedindo que Ricardo assumisse o trono como estatuto Titulus Regius, e a conquista de cem rebeldes de 1483. Em todo o seu reinado, que incluiu dois grandes períodos de guerra civil, Eduardo IV atingiu apenas 140 pessoas. O regime de Richard já era visto como excessivamente dependente de seus seguidores do norte, tornando-se cada vez mais estreito com o passar do ano.

Richard obteve alguns sucessos durante o ano. Ele finalmente chegou a um acordo com Elizabeth Woodville e, em 1o de março, ela e suas filhas deixaram o santuário. Ele também foi capaz de aplicar pressão sobre Francisco II da Bretanha, e em setembro ou outubro Henry Tudor foi forçado a fugir para a França. O maior golpe veio em abril. Seu filho Edward não tinha sido uma criança saudável e em abril ele morreu. Seus pais ficaram perturbados. Richard havia sofrido um golpe pessoal e político - sem herdeiro, ele era agora um beco sem saída dinástico. As coisas só pioraram após a morte de sua esposa Anne Neville em 16 de março de 1485. Se o regime de Ricardo tivesse sobrevivido, ele teria se casado novamente e talvez produzido um herdeiro, mas na atmosfera aquecida de 1485 rumores danosos logo se espalharam. Richard teria envenenado sua esposa para que ele pudesse se casar com sua sobrinha Elizabeth de York. Esses rumores ameaçaram afastar os partidários cruciais de Neville de Richard, que estavam em grande parte ligados a ele por meio de seu casamento com Anne, e em 30 de março ele foi forçado a fazer uma declaração pública em que prometia não se casar com Elizabeth.

O regime de Richard tinha bases cada vez mais estreitas, mas no momento ele podia esperar contar com seus partidários do norte, e em particular Henry Percy, conde de Northumberland, e Thomas, Lord Stanley. Stanley carregou a maça na coroação de Ricardo e era o mordomo-chefe de sua casa, mas fora preso por um breve período no início do reinado de Ricardo e era casado com a mãe de Henry Tudor, Margaret Beaufort. Stanley permaneceria neutro em Bosworth, apesar de ter prometido apoiar Henry Tudor, e seria seu irmão, Sir William Stanley, quem faria a intervenção decisiva na batalha.

Henry Percy, quarto conde de Northumberland, só havia sido restaurado aos seus títulos e terras em 1470 e permaneceu efetivamente neutro durante todas as convulsões de 1470-71. Nenhum dos dois era totalmente confiável, e nenhum dos dois lutaria ativamente por Richard em Bosworth.

No final de 1483, Henry Tudor tinha se juntado à maioria dos rebeldes sobreviventes, entre eles o filho de Elizabeth Woodville, Thomas Gray, marquês de Dorset, Peter Courtenay, bispo de Winchester, Edward Courteney, o chefe Lancastriano da família Courtenay, e muitos de Ex-cortesãos de Eduardo IV, incluindo Sir Giles Daubeney, Sir John Cheyne e Sir William Berkeley. A mudança para a França trabalhou a seu favor, colocando-o fora do alcance de Ricardo e conquistando o apoio ativo dos regentes de Carlos VIII.

Na França, Tudor foi acompanhado por John de Vere, conde de Oxford, um lancastriano dedicado que havia estado na prisão em Hammes, uma das fortalezas de Calais. Ele estava acompanhado por James Blount, o capitão do Castelo Hammes, e John Fortescue, o cavalheiro porteiro de Calais. These defections worried Richard, and he replaced the garrison. In March 1485 he went one step further and put his illegitimate son John of Gloucester in charge. John was a minor and so Richard had effectively taken personal command of the garrison.

In December 1484 Richard began to prepare for an invasion, which was expected to come in the summer of 1485. On 7 December he issued his first proclamation against Henry Tudor. On 8 December he issued commissions of array for most English counties, the first step in raising the local levies and on 18 December he ordered a survey of the lords and gentry's military capability, asking how many men they could raise on half a days notice.

Henry Tudor's Invasion

In the spring of 1485 Henry moved to Rouen and began to gather a fleet. In April Richard sent his fleet to sea under Sir George Neville, and in June he ordered the commissioners of array to be ready to mobilise their men at short notice. Richard then moved to Nottingham to wait for the upcoming invasion.

One of Henry's most important tasks was to try and gain supporters in England and Wales. By the spring of 1485 he had received promises of support from the Stanleys, from Gilbert Talbot, uncle of George Talbot fourth earl of Shrewsbury (the earl was only seventeen in 1485, although he did fight at the battle of Stoke in 1487), from Lord Stanley's nephew Sir John Savage, and from Rhys ap Thomas, a powerful figure in south Wales. As far as we know nothing was heard from the Percies. The Tudors still had their family link to Wales, and Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, still hoped to be able to raise some troops there. With most of their support thus coming from the north-west and Wales, the Tudors decided to land in Wales, move north to gather their supporters and then turn east to find Richard.

Henry Tudor set sail from Harfleur on 1 August 1485. His army had two components - a core of several hundred English exiles and a contingent of Norman mercenaries led by Philibert de Chandée. This force was somewhere between 2,000 and 3,000 strong and was described by Commynes as being made up of 'the most unruly men that could be found', but Henry did make their leader Earl of Bath in 1486 so they can&rsquot have performed too badly.

Richard's navy failed to interrupt Henry's passage, and his fleet landed at Milford Haven on 7 August 1485. Henry's men knew that they would be vulnerable until their allies showed their hands, and for the first few days they were rather nervy. On the first evening they advanced five miles towards Cardigan, but a rumour spread that Walter Herbert was about to attack them with a large army. Henry's scouts found no such army, but there was also no sign of Sir John Savage (he didn&rsquot actually join Henry until the day before the battle of Bosworth) or of Rhys ap Thomas. There were also worrying rumours that both men were planning to resist Henry's invasion.

Henry marched north up the coast towards Aberystwyth, with his fleet shadowing him. Rhys ap Thomas was offered the lieutenancy of Wales, and decided to stick to his word. From Aberystwyth Henry turned east to head towards Shrewsbury, and ap Thomas joined him on the road.

Henry was welcomed into Shrewsbury. He then advanced across Shropshire and into Staffordshire. Gilbert Talbot and 500 men joined him at Newport. He then advanced to Stafford, where he had an interview with Sir William Stanley. The main Stanley army had just withdrawn from Lichfield to Atherstone, on the road towards Richard's muster at Leicester, and Sir William's task was presumably to reassure Henry that this was just a ploy designed to deceive Richard. The Stanleys now had a serious problem. Lord Stanley had left court just before Henry had landed, but had had to leave his son Lord Strange behind as a hostage. On 11 August Richard learnt that Henry had landed and one of his first moves was to summon Lord Stanley back. Stanley claimed to have the sweating sickness and refused to move. Lord Strange then attempted to escape from court, but was captured. Under questioning he admitted that his uncle Sir William was with Henry, but claimed that his father was now loyal. Lord Stanley knew that if he was to save his son, then he would have to remain neutral for as long as possible and only openly support Henry once the battle was underway.

From Stafford Henry moved to Lichfield, and then to Tamworth. On his way he was joined by Sir Walter Hungerford and Sir Thomas Bourchier, two former members of Edward IV's household. They had taken part in Buckingham's revolt, but had since been pardoned. Richard had summoned them to his muster, but didn&rsquot entirely trust them so had ordered one of his men to accompany them. Despite these efforts the two men had escaped from their guard and joined Henry.

From Tamworth Henry went to Atherstone, where he had a secret meeting with the Stanleys, who once again assured him of their support.

On 21 August both armies moved towards Market Bosworth. Richard arrived first and was able pick his battlefield. Henry arrived later in the day and camped a few miles away. 22 August would see the decisive and only battle of the campaign, and would decide which man would wear the crown.

A Batalha de Bosworth Field

Contemporary documents give us two clues for the location of the battle. The York city records place it on Redmoor Plain, bordered by Market Bosworth in the north, Stoke Golding three and half miles to the south, Sutton Cheney in the east and Upton three and a half miles to the west. This is an area of gentle hills, with the steepest being Ambion Hill, just to the west of Sutton Cheney. This is the site of the visitor centre, but possibly not of the battle itself. An alternative site to the south of Ambion Hill has also been credibly suggested as the site of the battle, although the two locations are close enough for it not to really be a significant issue.

According to the proclamation Henry issued after the battle Richard was killed at Sandeford but we don&rsquot know where that was, and the area is crossed by many streams that might have been had a sandy ford in 1485. The main water feature in the area now is the Ashby de la Zouch Canal, which of course has to be ignored when looking at the medieval terrain. The area was also rather more marshy in 1485, and so the presence of a swamp on the battlefield also doesn't really help.

We are better informed about the deployment of the two armies. Our best source for the battle is Polydore Vergil, who was writing under Henry VII, and so presumably had access to eyewitnesses and participants in the battle. Most other sources agree with his basic account.

Richard decided to put most of his men in an unusually wide and powerful vanguard, containing a mix of infantry and cavalry, and with a line of archers in front. John Howard, duke of Norfolk, was placed in charge of the vanguard which was apparently designed to intimidate Henry's men. In most medieval battles the vanguard was actually the right wing of the army, the rearguard formed the left wing and the main battle was in the centre, but here both sides appear to have used their vanguard as a genuine front line. Richard took up a position behind the front line, with a select force of his own men. It isn&rsquot entirely clear where Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, was posted with his powerful force, but he may have been placed to watch Lord Stanley. Overall Richard is said to have had at least 10,000 men, but many of them fought without enthusiasm.

Henry had around 5,000 men. He had a narrow vanguard, with a line of archers in front. John de Vere, earl of Oxford, was certainly in charge of the archers, and probably also of the vanguard. Gilbert Talbot was posted on the right wing, and John Savage on the left. Edward was in the centre with a small force of cavalry and infantry.

The Stanleys are said to have taken up a position between the two armies, presumably meaning somewhere off to one side, equally distant from both forces. On the morning of the battle Henry asked Stanley to join his army, but Lord Strange was still a hostage in Richard's army. Lord Stanley's response was that Henry should array his own men. Stanley would put his men in battle order and then bring them to the battlefield. The Stanleys probably had 3,000 men at Bosworth, under the command of Sir William Stanley, but it is possible that they had 8,000 men, with 3,000 under Sir William and the rest under Lord Stanley. In most modern accounts the Stanleys don&rsquot join the battle until Sir William's intervention towards the end, but other early sources have Lord Stanley join with Oxford soon after the fighting began.

There was a swamp between the two armies. Henry advanced around the left-hand side of this swamp, using it to protect his right flank against attack. One source says that he had the sun on his back at this stage, and this is often taken to mean that he was moving north, but the only problem with this detail is that the fight was taking place on an August morning, so the sun would have been in the east or south-east.

As Henry advanced around the swamp Richard ordered his men to attack. The battle began when Richard's archers opened fire. Henry's archers returned fire and the two armies then advanced towards each other and a fierce melee began.

Oxford feared that his men would be outflanked, and so ordered them not to go more than ten feet from their standards. This move caused a pause in the battle as Richard's men feared that it might have been the start of some sort of trick (perhaps the entry into battle of Lord Stanley). Oxford then renewed the battle, attacking in a wedge. This might have been when the duke of Norfolk was killed, although that isn't at all clear.

The battle wasn&rsquot decided by this melee. While the fighting was going on Richard's scouts noticed Henry, a little way away from his main army and guarded by a small bodyguard (presumably his own household troops). Richard decided to attack Henry and attempt to end the battle by killing his rival. He led his select force around the edge of the main battle, and charged Henry's force. For some time the outcome of this fight appears to have been in doubt. Henry's banner was cast down, and his standard bearer William Brandon was killed (Polydore Vergil says he was the only one of Henry's nobles to be killed in the battle). Richard was held up by Sir John Cheney, but Henry was in real danger. At this point Sir William Stanley finally committed to the battle, leading his 3,000 men to Henry's assistance. Most of Richard's men fled from the scene, but the king himself remained behind and was killed in the fighting.

With Richard dead the rest of his army is said to have fled or surrendered. Polydore Virgil says that Richard lost around 1,000 dead, while Henry only lost 100. As most casualties happened after one line had broken, this would suggest some sort of pursuit of Richard's defeated vanguard. Amongst the dead were the duke of Norfolk, Lord Ferrers, Robert Brackenbury and Sir Richard Radcliffe. Others escaped from the battlefield. Lord Francis Lovell and Humphrey and Thomas Stafford all reached the sanctuary of St. John at Colchester.

Amongst the many prisoners were Earl Thomas of Surrey (Norfolk's son), who was imprisoned for some time, and Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, who was very briefly imprisoned but then released without punishment. Percy's behaviour at the battle was widely judged to have been a betrayal of Richard III, but is no evidence of an actual agreement with Henry so it is possible that the battle ended before Percy's men were actually ordered into the fight.

According to Polydore Vergil Richard wore his crown into battle. It was discovered on the field, and placed on Henry's head by Lord Stanley. Henry Tudor was acclaimed king as Henry VII on the battlefield.

The battle of Bosworth Field really ended the third and final phase of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was crowned on 30 October, and on 18 January 1486 he kept his vow to marry Elizabeth of York. Their first son, Prince Arthur, was born on 19 September of the same year.

There were a few die-hard Yorkists who refused to accept the verdict of Bosworth, but the House of York had rather torn itself apart and so they were lacking clear alternatives to Henry. There were two possible heirs - Clarence's son Edward Plantagenet, earl of Warwick, but he was soon securely in Henry's hands, or John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln and the son of Richard's sister Elizabeth.

Neither of these men was a convincing claimant, and so when the Yorkists did attempt to overthrow Henry they used imposters as their figureheads. The first, and most serious of these revolts, Lambert Simnel's revolt, broke out in 1487. Simnel was said to be the earl of Warwick, although Henry was able to produce the real earl in London. Simnel's supporters eventually risked an invasion of England, but this ended in a disastrous defeat at the battle of Stoke (16 June 1487). Lincoln was killed in the battle and Simnel was captured in what is generally seen as the last battle of the Wars of the Roses. A second pretender, Perkin Warbeck, appeared in the 1490s, but was never a real threat.

Bosworth 1485, The Downfall of Richard III, Christopher Gravett. An excellent account of the battle of Bosworth, fully taking into account recent archaeology which has moved the site of the battle and produced the body of Richard III! The result is a convincing account of the battle that combines the sometimes contradictory evidence from the written sources with the impressive array of finds from the battlefield to produce a coherent account of the battle (Read Full Review)

Christian History Timeline: Zwingli

IT WAS AN AGE reaping the benefits of events of the 1450’s—when Constantiople’s fall to the Turks threatened all of Europe and Gutenberg’s innovation of movable type gave more than a select few the privelege of coming to their own conclusions. In Zwingli’s lifetime—a mere fifty years—scholars of the church questioned the faith as Rome had tought it, and courageous explorers thrust through ancient myths and fears to discover new horizons. It was a world encountering a new kind of trade, including tasty foods from exotic lands. It was a world becoming stronger—in England, France, and Spain. It was a world equipping itself with giants—moneyed families such as the Medici and the Fuggers, geniuses of form such as Michaelangelo, Da Vinci, and Raphael, singleminded leaders such as Columbus, Henry VIII, Ferdinand and Isabella, and Luther. It was an age to give people hope in princely powers as well as in personal ideals. It was an age beginning to change at a faster pace, yet it was an age when one could still burn as a heretic.

1477 Swiss pikemen distinguish themselves at Battle of Nancy, making them much sought after as mercenaries

1480 Ferdinand and Isabella appoint Inquisition against heresy among converted Jews

1480 Ivan III styles himself Czar of the Russians

1482 Portuguese explorers discover bananas on west coast of Africa

1483 Martin Luther born

1484 “At Hammel in Saxony, on the 20th of June, 1484, the Devil, in the likeness of a pied piper, carried away 130 children, that were never after seen.”

1484 Japan’s shogun Yoshimasa introduces the tea ceremony

1484 Huldrych Zwingli born at Wildhaus (Toggenburg) in Canton of St. Gall

1485 Battle of Bosworth on August 22 ends England’s 15-year Wars of the Roses Henry VII crowned first king of 117-year Tudor dynasty

1489 Symbols + and – come into use

1490 Beginnings of ballet at Italian courts

1492 Christopher Columbus, with three ships and 78 men set sail on September 6 after first attempt aborted arrives in the Bahamas, thinking he has reached the East Indies

1492 Isabella and Ferdinand take Granada from the Moors and expel 200,000 Jews

1492 Lorenzo de’ Medici dies

1492 Christopher Columbus introduces Europeans to the pineapple, parrots, Indians, peppers, allspice, maize, and sweet potatoes

1492 Nuremberg geographer Behaim constructs first terrestrial globe

1492 Leonardo da Vinci draws a flying machine

1492 Profession of publisher emerges, consisting of typefounder, printer, and bookseller

1493 Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman Emperor

1494 First moblie artillery firing iron cannon balls, used by Charles VIII in Italy

1495 First recorded outbreak of syphilis infects army of Charles VIII at Naples

1495 Merchant-investor Jakob Fugger ensures powerful political power through leasing of copper and siver mines

1495 The Imperial Diet of Worms attempts to modernize the Holy Roman Empire proclaims Perpetual Peace, and imposes common penny as general tax

1498 Vasco de Cama establishes sea route between Portugal and India

1498 Savonarola burned at the stake for heresy in Florence

1499 War between Swabian League and Swiss Cantons. Swiss victory forces Treaty of Basel granting Swiss independance

1499 Granada’s Moors revolt as Inquisitor de Cisneros introduces forced wholesale Christian conversion

1500 Pope Alexander VI proclaims a Year of Jubilee imposes a tithe for crusade against Turks

1500 First human Caesarian operation performed by Swiss pig gelder Jakob Nufer

1500 Postal service between Vienna and Brussels established

1501 Music printed for the first time by use of movable type

1501 Peace of Trent between France and Emperor Maximilian I recognizes French conquests in Upper Italy

1501 Erasmus’ Enchiridion promotes a Christianity based on the Sermon of the Mount

1501 Michaelangelo completes Pieta

1502 University of Wittenberg established by Frederick, Elector of Saxony

1503 Canterbury Cathedral completed after 436 years of construction

1503 Da Vinci paints “Mona Lisa”

1503 Pocket handkerchief comes into use

1504 Venice sends ambassadors to Sultan of Turkey, proposing construction of a Suez Canal

1506 Completes Master of Arts at University of Basel

1506 Becomes parish priest at Glarus

1507 New geography by Waldseemüller proposes the New World be called “America” after Amerigo Vespucci

1507 League of Cambrai formed by Margaret of Austria, the Cardinal of Rouen, and Ferdinand of Aragon to despoil Venice

1507 Diet of Constance recognizes unity of Holy Roman Empire

1507 Martin Luther ordained

1509 Erasmus writes Praise of Folly at Thomas More’s home

1510 African slaves cross the Atlantic to work in Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil

1510 Jakob Fugger lends Maximilian 170,000 ducats to finance war against Venice

1511 Pope Julius forms Holy League with Venice and Aragon to drive French out of city Henry VIII joins Holy League

1511 Servetus, Spanish theologian and physician executed in Geneva as a heretic

1512 Forces of the holy League meet defeat at Ravenna coalition of Swiss, papal, and imperial forces drive French and their German mercenaries out of Milan

1513 Giovanni de Medici becomes Pope Leo X —“one of most severe trials to which God ever subjected his church”

1513 Peasant and labor rebellions spread eastward from Switzerland

1515 French decisive victory over Swiss and Venetians at Battle of Marignano Swiss retain Alpine passes and French gain right to enlist Swiss mercenaries

1515 Lateran Council forbids printing of books without permission of Roman Catholic authorities

1515 Witnesses Swiss routed in “Battle of Giants” at Marignano

1515 Writes satire of mercenary war, The Labyrinth, calling for Christian love and brotherhood and end to violence

1515 Meets Erasmus, Dutch humanist

1516 Out of step with Glarus’s French leanings, moves to Einsiedeln affar with local barber’s daughter

1516–17 Reads Erasmus’s translation of the New Testament, Novum Instrumentum

1512-1517 Pope Julius II convenes the Lateran Council to undertake reforms in abuses of Church in Rome

1517 Postagens de Martin Luther 95 Theses in protest of sale of indulgences

1518 Nomeado Leutpriester at Zurich Grossmünster

1519 Begins New Testament sermon series, signalling new era of Biblical preaching

1519 Ministers to Zurich’s plague victims, ill himself 3 months with plague

1519 Leads Zurch to withdraw from alliance with Catholic France Zurch mercenaries forbidden to hire out to France

1521 Diet of Worms Luther refuses to recant gets backing of German princes begins German translation of Bible

1522 Attends printer Christopher Froschauer’s party where Lenten rules are broken writes “Freedom of Choice in Eating” to oppose fasting

1522 Secretly marries widow Anna Reinhart signs memorial with 10 other ministers asking the Bishop of Constance for sanction to marry

1522 Develops circle of young clergy and humanists—Grebel, Manz, Reublin, Brotli, Stumpf

1522 Escreve Apologeticus Archeteles, his testemony of faith

1522 Resigns priesthood re-employed by City Council as evangelical pastor in same post

1523 Under auspices of Zurich Council, invites Christian Europe to public disputation of 67 theses authorized by Council to continue preaching the Gospel

1523 Writes “Of divine and human justice” to defend Council’s refusal to modify tithes legislation

1523 Holds second public debate on images and mass recommends that Council authorize removal of images

1524 Publicly marries his wife

1525 Public disputation on infant baptism draws the battle line for former followers, Grebel and others

1525 Writes two anti-Anabaptist pamphlets, “On baptism” and “On the preaching office”

1526 Convinces council in March to issue edict authorizing execution of Anabaptists

1526 Decides that Swiss unity must be maintained even with force after Swiss-Catholic assembly at Baden

1528 Accepts Berne’s invitation to a public debate, resulting in elimination of the mass, images, and alters there

1529 Accompanies Zurich forces to First Kappel War

1529 Meets Luther in Marburg in October for four days of discussion called by Philip, Landgrave of Hesse

1531 Angles for French support for the Reformation by allowing Swiss mercenaries to be hired

1531 Dressed in battle armor, joins the forces on October 11 and is killed

1532 Calvin starts Protestant movement in France

1534 Act of Supremacy Henry VIII declared supreme head of Church of England

1534 Ignatius Loyola founds Society of Jesus to spread Counter Reformation

By the Editors

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #4 in 1984]

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Localização

For several years after the event the battle was called the Battle of Redemore and it was some time before the more famous name was used. This has led to the theory that the battle was não fought on Ambion Hill but on a reedy moor in the same area. People have long been researching to try to discover the actual site of this battle work which has continued in the first decade of the 21st century.

There appears to be truth in all the theories but none takes the whole set of evidence into account. There is however, a coherent account of events but it has not been published, so Wikipedia rules preclude its inclusion here.


Rescaldo

Losses for the Battle of Bosworth Field are not known with any precision though some sources indicate that the Yorkists suffered 1,000 dead, while Henry's army lost 100. The accuracy of these numbers is a subject of debate. After the battle, legend states that Richard's crown was found in a hawthorn bush near where he died. Regardless, Henry was crowned king later that day on a hill near Stoke Golding. Henry, now King Henry VII, had Richard's body stripped and thrown over a horse to be taken to Leicester. There it was displayed for two days to prove that Richard was dead. Moving to London, Henry consolidated his hold on power, establishing the Tudor Dynasty. Following his official coronation on October 30, he made good his pledge to marry Elizabeth of York. While Bosworth Field effectively decided the Wars of the Roses, Henry was forced to fight again two years later at the Battle of Stoke Field to defend his newly-won crown.


Battle of Bosworth Field

The Battle of Bosworth Field took place on 22nd August 1485. Supporters of King Richard III fought against the army of Henry Tudor. The Stanley’s joined the battle as it was fought. Richard III led an attack aimed at slaying Henry Tudor. Richard’s assault failed and he himself was killed. Henry Tudor was proclaimed king as a result of his victory at Bosworth. Victory in the battle did not end the Wars of the Roses. The remains of Richard III were taken to Leicester where he was buried with little ceremony. His body has since been discovered by Archaeologists from the University of Leicester. His reinterment took place at Leicester Cathedral in 2015.

17th Century depiction of the Battle of Bosworth

Why did Henry Tudor invade in 1485?

Henry Tudor became the figurehead for Lancastrian support following the defeats at Barnet and Tewkesbury. Though in exile, he was able to gain support from families who had lost out as a result of those Yorkist victories. As the head of the line, his only real hope of acquiring the lands that his family lost after 1471 was through use of force. That in itself meant that he would have to take up the Lancastrian claim to the throne. Henry’s claim was quite tenuous. It came through a second marriage and so wasn’t the line of succession to which we, or the people of the 15th century, were accustomed to. However, by 1485 the political situation in England had changed to the extent that an invasion seemed viable. Indeed, it had been planned to take place earlier. Henry’s invasion was possible in 1485 because of the level of discontent in England. Rebellion against Richard III had occurred across much of the South of England. With Richard having to deal with uprisings, it was a good time to gain support for a rival claim and also an opportunity to exploit the unrest. 1485 was also significant as Richard’s son and heir had died in 1484. This meant that even if Richard were to have more children it would be some years before they would be old enough to rule. Another child monarch was something that people wanted to avoid.

How was Henry Tudor able to get support for his cause?

Support for Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, came from several sources. His ancestral lands and those of his kin were supportive of his claim. His invasion force landed in South Wales to make the most of these supporters. The Buckingham rebellion saw many nobles and those of the gentry begin to look for a viable alternative to Richard. With Edward V presumed dead, Henry was the next best thing. Support also came from overseas. Funding for the expedition was possible because of the foreign interest in English affairs. This allowed mercenaries to be hired for the invasion of England. Nobles who were likely to benefit from the accession of a rival claim were willing to take a risk in supporting Tudor’s campaign.

Henry also offered the prospect of lasting peace. He intended to marry Elizabeth of York. This marriage would have political benefits. Uniting the different lines of the Plantagenet house prevents alternative claims: apart from any purporting to be the Princes in the Tower.

Was Richard III prepared for an invasion?

Henry, Earl of Richmond, had been close to landing an invasion force during Buckingham’s rebellion. He had a force off the shore of Plymouth but did not make landfall and returned to France. The intention to land had been known to Richard and the royal household. In short, an invasion by Henry was expected. With that in mind a general state of readiness was put into place. On 11th August when Richard heard of Tudor’s landing, he summoned these men to join him. He was based in Nottingham and could draw upon estates loyal to him in the midlands and north. He appears to have misjudged the willingness of some nobles to support him though.

Henry Tudor’s invasion

Henry sailed from France to Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire. From here, deep in sympathetic lands, he marched north east through Wales. On the way he gathered additional troops. The force made it’s way to Shrewsbury where it was joined by other nobles who supported Henry’s claim. From here, it made it’s way into the Midlands.

The Battlefield: location, topography and battle formations

Bosworth Field is the plain underneath Ambion Hill near Sutton Cheney in Leicestershire. It was here that the fighting took place. Richard and his force had begun the day camped on Ambion Hill. The Stanley contingent watched from nearby Dadlington Hill.

Richard’s army was larger than that of Henry. He drew up his force in 3 groups. One commanded by himself, the other two under the leadership of the Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Northumberland respectively. They were positioned on Ambion Hill.

Henry placed most of his force under the command of the Earl of Oxford, an experienced commander. Some 1800 troops are believed to have been French mercenaries under the command of Philbert de Chandee. All of Henry’s army formed up on the plain beneath Ambion Hill.

The course of the Battle of Bosworth

Early Stages of the Battle. Image from Wikipedia.

The opening of the battle saw Oxford decide to move his men to firmer ground. He wanted to keep them in one formation to prevent small groups being overwhelmed by Richard’s larger army. As they did this Richard’s cannon harassed them. The two sides closed for battle with Henry’s men advancing up the hill and the Duke of Norfolk’s men leading the Yorkist advance. Archers loosed thousands of arrows from both sides as they closed in. The hand to hand battle saw the single command structure that Oxford had put into place begin to dominate Norfolk’s men. Richard waved Northumberland forward to sway the battle in his favour.

It is at this point that one of the key turning points of the battle took place. Northumberland did not react. He simply did not lead his men into the fight. This left Norfolk’s men outnumbered as the division of the Yorkist army meant that manoeuvrability was required to make the overall numerical advantage count. Now, there was a threat of the command being overwhelmed. Richard had to react.

Richard led a charge toward Henry. If Henry could be killed, the battle was won. As Richard’s men charged, Stanley joined the battle. It had been unclear which side he would join but now he sided with Henry. This left Richard’s force quite vulnerable. Edward Hall, writing in the 16th century, summarises what he believed happened next:

The vanguard of King Richard, which was put to flight, was picked off by Lord Stanley who with all of 20,000 combatants came at a good place to the aid of the earl. The earl of Northumberland, who was on the king’s side with 10,000 men, ought to have charged the French, but did nothing except to flee, both he and his company, to abandon his King RIchard, for he had an undertaking with the earl of Richmond, as had some others who deserted him in his need. The king bore himself valiantly according to his destiny, and wore the crown on his head but when he saw this discomforture and found himself alone on the field he thought to run after the others. His horse leapt into a march from which it could not retrieve itself. One of the Welshmen then came after him, and struck him dead with a halberd, and another took his body and put it before him on his horse and carried it, hair hanging as one would bear a sheep.

‘And so he who miserably killed numerous people, ended his days iniquitously and filthily in the dirt and mire, and he who had despoiled churches was displayed to the people naked and without any clothing, and without any royal solemnity was buried at the entrance to a village church.

‘The vanguard [or in one text ‘rearguard’] which the grand chamberlain of England led, seeing Richard dead, turned in flight and there were in this battle only 300 slain on either side.’

Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble Families of Lancaster and York. 1550 (Google Books)

The role of personal feuds in the Battle of Bosworth

Historian Chris Skidmore, writing on the Tudortimes website, notes the significance of Personal feuds in the Battle of Bosworth. Feuds helped to determine which side the nobility would take. The Stanley’s had a long standing feud with the Harrington family. If the opportunity arose, they could benefit from the battle. In this case Thomas Stanley is rewarded in several ways. For his act of joining the battle on Henry’s side, he received the Earldom of Derby and was soon after made Constable of England. His personal feud saw Harrington attained by Henry. Skidmore cites other examples: Blount-Babington Troutebeck who had property confiscated by Edward IV Hassalle, who had been put out of office by Richard III Robert Harcourt who’s father had been attained, joined Henry in exile and many others who had family reasons, often through attainders, to join with the Tudor cause.

The outcome: Richard III’s death

The Rous Rolls provide us with a near contemporary account of the death of Richard III. John Rous had previously written positively about the Yorkist cause. Following Bosworth his writing becomes quite Lancastrian in tone. For Richard, however, he reserves a last positive appraisal:

For in the thick of the fight, and not in the act of flight, King Richard fell in the field, struck by many mortal wounds, as a bold and most valiant prince.

John Rous. Historia Johannis Rossi Warwicensis de Regibus Anglie. BL Record.

Popular legend has Richard III fighting his last on his own. A brave but doomed charge, followed by losing his horse. It lent itself to Shakepeare’s famous lines and pervades to this day. Porque? One of the better known Tudor accounts of the Battle of Bosworth deals with Richard’s final acts.

The vanguard of King Richard, which was put to flight, was picked off by Lord Stanley who with all of 20,000 combatants came at a good place to the aid of the earl. The earl of Northumberland, who was on the king’s side with 10,000 men, ought to have charged the French, but did nothing except to flee, both he and his company, to abandon his King RIchard, for he had an undertaking with the earl of Richmond, as had some others who deserted him in his need. The king bore himself valiantly according to his destiny, and wore the crown on his head but when he saw this discomforture and found himself alone on the field he thought to run after the others. His horse leapt into a march from which it could not retrieve itself. One of the Welshmen then came after him, and struck him dead with a halberd, and another took his body and put it before him on his horse and carried it, hair hanging as one would bear a sheep.

John Major. c1550 A History of Britain.

And moreover, the king ascertaineth you that Richard duke of Gloucester, late called King Richard, was slain at a place called Sandeford, within the shire of Leicester, and brought dead off the field unto the town of Leicester, and there was laid openly, that every man might see and look upon him. And also there was slain upon the same field, John late duke of Norfolk, John late earl of Lincoln, Thomas, late earl of Surrey, Francis Viscount Lovell, Sir Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers, Richard Radcliffe, knight, Robert Brackenbury, knight, with many other knights, squires and gentlemen, of whose souls God have mercy.

Proclamation of Henry Tudor. 22/23 August 1485 (Cited here).

The death of Richard III has become a legend. Shakespeare’s influence has been significant in forming popular beliefs about the way in which Richard died in battle. The evidence suggests that Richard’s death was gruesome. His remains show that he suffered 11 wounds at or near the time of his death. 9 of these were blows to his skull.

The most likely injuries to have caused the king’s death are the two to the inferior aspect of the skull – a large sharp force trauma possibly from a sword or staff weapon, such as a halberd or bill, and a penetrating injury from the tip of an edged weapon.

Richard’s head injuries are consistent with some near-contemporary accounts of the battle, which suggest that Richard abandoned his horse after it became stuck in a mire and was killed while fighting his enemies.

Professor Guy Rutty, University of Leicester.

It is quite likely that Richard had lost his helmet whilst fighting.

Richard’s injuries represent a sustained attack or an attack by several assailants with weapons from the later medieval period.

The wounds to the skull suggest that he was not wearing a helmet, and the absence of defensive wounds on his arms and hands indicate that he was otherwise still armoured at the time of his death.

Professor Sarah Hainsworth, University of Leicester.

Did the Battle of Bosworth end the Wars of the Roses?

The Battle of Bosworth killed Richard III. It led to Henry becoming King Henry VII. It did not bring an immediate end to hostilities though. As many had joined Henry’s cause because of personal feuds, the same was true of Richard’s cause. The death on the Battlefield of Richard didn’t bring those feuds to an end. They still needed to be dealt with. There was also a question mark over Henry’s legitimacy. The possibility of the Princes in the Tower still being alive was slim but it gave some a little hope of a Yorkist revival. To place the battle into the context of the wider conflict, see this infographic on the wars of the roses.

Richard III’s remains: Why were they removed from the battlefield?

Accounts show that Richard’s remains were taken from the battlefield to Leicester. It was typical of the day to lay out in public the remains of senior figures who had been killed in battle. This was a simple and effective way of communicating the fact to the people. It left no doubt in anybody’s mind that Richard was dead.


Guerra das Rosas

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