A história

O nascimento da Liga Nacional de Futebol


Os 14 homens amontoados dentro do showroom de automóveis Jordan and Hupmobile no centro de Canton, Ohio, na noite de 17 de setembro de 1920, estavam finalmente prontos para fechar um acordo. Eles tinham vindo para a concessionária de Ralph Hay não em busca de um novo conjunto de rodas, no entanto, mas uma nova liga de futebol profissional para salvá-los de si mesmos.

Em 1920, o futebol profissional permanecia completamente ofuscado pelo jogo universitário e um bastião confinado principalmente a pequenas cidades industriais do meio-oeste. Pior ainda para os donos de times, eles estavam sangrando dinheiro por causa dos salários cada vez maiores dos jogadores e intensas guerras de lances enquanto roubavam jogadores de outros times. Os proprietários dessas equipes profissionais independentes cobiçavam uma liga forte como a que o beisebol tinha, a fim de obter mais controle sobre o esporte - e suas finanças.

Hay, o proprietário do atual campeão da Liga de Ohio, Canton Bulldogs, convidou representantes de três outras equipes do estado para uma reunião organizacional em seu showroom em 20 de agosto, onde concordaram em um esboço geral de uma nova associação. De acordo com o Canton Evening Repository, o objetivo do novo empreendimento seria “elevar o padrão do futebol profissional de todas as formas possíveis, eliminar licitações para jogadores entre clubes rivais e assegurar a cooperação na formação de horários”.

Quase um mês depois, um acordo estava pronto para ser fechado. Hay reuniu representantes de 11 clubes de futebol profissional espalhados por Ohio, Illinois, Indiana e Nova York: Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles, Decatur Staleys, Hammond Pros, Massillon Tigers, Muncie Flyers, Racine Cardinals, Rochester Jeffersons e Rock Independentes da ilha. (As equipes eram tão desconhecidas que até mesmo as atas das reuniões listavam erroneamente os Cardinals, que jogavam em casa no Normal Park na Racine Avenue, em Chicago, como sendo da cidade de Wisconsin com o mesmo nome.) Incapazes de se espremer no escritório de Hay na noite úmida , os pioneiros do futebol, incluindo Jim Thorpe e George Halas, sentaram-se nos estribos e nos para-lamas dos carros de US $ 3.000 no showroom e pegaram garrafas de cerveja gelada de um balde gelado enquanto fechavam um acordo.

De acordo com as atas da reunião datilografadas em papel timbrado do Akron Professional Football Team, o primeiro item da questão foi desfavorável - a retirada de Massillon antes mesmo da liga oficialmente formada. Então, os homens moveram e apoiaram uma proposta para formar uma confederação conhecida como American Professional Football Association (APFA). A nova liga precisava de um presidente para liderar a organização e ser sua face pública, e a escolha exigia pouco debate. Os representantes da equipe escolheram unanimemente Thorpe, de 32 anos, a estrela do Canton Bulldogs que, embora já tivesse passado do auge, ainda era elogiado por jornais como o Milwaukee Journal como o "maior atleta do mundo". Na verdade, a seleção do maior portão de atração do campo de futebol rendeu mais tinta aos jornais de todo o país do que a formação do próprio APFA.

O primeiro jogo envolvendo uma equipe APFA aconteceu em 26 de setembro de 1920, em Douglas Park, em Rock Island, Illinois, quando os Independents da cidade natal destruíram o St. Paul Ideals por 48-0. Os primeiros confrontos diretos na liga ocorreram uma semana depois, quando Dayton venceu o Columbus por 14-0 e Rock Island derrotou Muncie por 45-0.

Enquanto as dimensões do campo de batalha eram as mesmas em 1920 e hoje, o jogo profissional em si era bem diferente. Os passes para frente eram raros, treinar nas linhas laterais era proibido e os jogadores competiam tanto no ataque quanto na defesa. O dinheiro era tão apertado que Halas carregava equipamentos, escrevia comunicados à imprensa, vendia ingressos, prendia os tornozelos, jogava e treinava para o clube Decatur. Ao contrário do cronograma padrão de 16 jogos de hoje, os clubes em 1920 programavam seus próprios oponentes e podiam jogar contra times não-liga e até mesmo universitários que contavam para seus recordes. Sem diretrizes estabelecidas, o número de jogos disputados - e a qualidade dos adversários programados - pelas equipes da APFA variava, e a liga não mantinha classificações oficiais.

Os Buffalo All-Americans, Chicago Tigers, Columbus Panhandles e Detroit Heralds juntaram-se à liga antes do final da temporada, elevando o número total de times para 14, mas a temporada inaugural foi uma luta. Os jogos receberam pouca atenção dos fãs - e menos ainda da imprensa. De acordo com o livro de Robert W. Peterson, "Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football", os jogos da APFA tiveram uma média de público de 4.241. O estatuto da associação previa que as equipes pagassem uma taxa de inscrição de US $ 100, mas ninguém o fez. Muncie jogou apenas uma partida antes de desistir antes do final da temporada, que terminou em 19 de dezembro.

No final da temporada, não houve playoffs - muito menos um Super Bowl - e levou mais de quatro meses antes que a liga se importasse em coroar um campeão. Assim como o futebol universitário fez durante décadas, o APFA determinou seu vencedor por meio de voto. Em 30 de abril de 1921, os representantes da equipe votaram no Akron Pros, que completou a temporada invicto com oito vitórias e três empates, rendendo apenas um total de sete pontos, o campeão, apesar dos protestos das equipes de uma derrota em Decatur e Buffalo, cada um empatou com Akron e teve mais vitórias. Os vencedores receberam uma taça de prata doada pela empresa de artigos esportivos Brunswick-Balke-Collender. Embora os jogadores não tenham recebido anéis incrustados de diamantes, eles receberam pingentes dourados no formato de uma bola de futebol com as palavras “Campeões do Mundo”.

Precisando de um líder com maior perspicácia para os negócios, os proprietários dos times substituíram Thorpe pelo dono do Columbus Panhandles, Joe Carr e, em 1922, a APFA rebatizou-se como National Football League. Enquanto os anos 20 rugiam, a NFL estourou. O futebol americano universitário permaneceu rei, atraindo multidões de até 100.000 pessoas, enquanto as franquias da NFL iam e vinham. Somente após a assinatura do fenômeno universitário Red Grange, em 1925, o futebol profissional começou a ganhar popularidade.

A primeira temporada da NFL foi tão rapidamente esquecida na memória do esporte coletivo que o livro de recordes oficiais da liga listou o campeonato de 1920 como indeciso até os anos 1970. O paradeiro da Copa Brunswick-Balke-Collender, divulgado apenas uma vez, é desconhecido. O legado de duas franquias APFA continua, no entanto. Os Racine Cardinals agora jogam no Arizona, e os Decatur Staleys se mudaram para Chicago em 1921 e mudaram seu nome para Bears no ano seguinte. Dez jogadores da APFA junto com Carr estão consagrados no Pro Football Hall of Fame, que abriu suas portas em 1963, não muito longe da concessionária de automóveis de Canton que deu origem à NFL em 1920.


História da Liga Nacional de Futebol

o história da Liga Nacional de Futebol tem raízes que remontam a 1892, quando o ex-armador do Yale All-American William Heffelfinger recebeu US $ 500 da Allegheny Athletic Association para jogar contra o Pittsburgh Athletic Club, tornando-o o primeiro jogador profissional de futebol. No entanto, não foi até 1920 que o futebol americano alcançou uma liga de qualquer orga verdadeira

A filiação à liga gradualmente se estabilizou ao longo das décadas de 1920 e 1930, à medida que a liga adotava uma organização cada vez mais formal. O primeiro jogo do campeonato oficial foi realizado em 1933. A NFL parou de contratar jogadores negros em 1927, mas se reintegrou em 1946 após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Outras mudanças se seguiram após a guerra, o cargo de presidente da liga evoluiu para o posto de comissário mais poderoso, refletindo um movimento semelhante na Liga Principal de Beisebol. As equipes se tornaram mais viáveis ​​financeiramente, a última equipe desistiu em 1952. Em 1958, quando o jogo do campeonato da NFL daquela temporada tornou-se conhecido como "The Greatest Game Ever Played", a NFL estava a caminho de se tornar uma das ligas esportivas mais populares do Estados Unidos.

A rival American Football League foi fundada em 1959. Foi muito bem-sucedida e forçou uma fusão com a antiga NFL que resultou em uma liga bastante expandida e na criação do Super Bowl, que se tornou o evento esportivo anual mais assistido no Estados Unidos. A liga continuou a se expandir até seu tamanho atual de 32 times. Uma série de acordos trabalhistas durante a década de 1990 e contratos cada vez maiores com a televisão ajudaram a manter a liga como uma das mais lucrativas dos EUA e a única liga principal dos EUA desde 1990 para evitar uma grande paralisação no trabalho.

Títulos de futebol profissional * Ώ]
(AFL, NFL e Super Bowl)
† = equipe extinta
Equipe Títulos
Green Bay Packers 13
Chicago Bears 9
New York Giants 7
Pittsburgh Steelers 6
Washington Redskins 5
Indianapolis Colts 5
São Francisco 49ers 5
Dallas Cowboys 5
Cleveland Browns 4
Detroit Lions 4
Oakland Raiders 4
Patriotas da Nova Inglaterra 3
Philadelphia Eagles 3
St. Louis Rams 3
Kansas City Chiefs 3
Miami Dolphins 2
Arizona Cardinals 2
Canton Bulldogs † 2
Denver Broncos 2
Titãs do Tennessee 2
Buffalo Bills 2
Akron Pros † 1
Baltimore Ravens 1
Cleveland Bulldogs † 1
Frankford Yellowjackets † 1
Minnesota Vikings 1
New York Jets 1
New Orleans Saints 1
Providence Steam Roller † 1
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 1
San Diego Chargers 1


Os primeiros clubes de futebol

Os clubes de futebol existem desde o século 15, mas não são organizados e não têm status oficial. Portanto, é difícil decidir qual foi o primeiro clube de futebol. Alguns historiadores sugerem que foi o Foot-Ball Club, formado em 1824 em Edimburgo. Os primeiros clubes eram frequentemente formados por ex-alunos de escolas e o primeiro desse tipo foi formado em Sheffield em 1855. O mais antigo entre os clubes de futebol profissional é o clube inglês Notts County, formado em 1862 e que ainda existe hoje.

Um passo importante para o surgimento das equipes foi a industrialização que levou a grupos maiores de pessoas se reunindo em locais como fábricas, pubs e igrejas. Times de futebol foram estabelecidos nas grandes cidades e as novas ferrovias poderiam levá-los a outras cidades.

No início, o futebol era dominado por times de escolas públicas, mas depois, times formados por trabalhadores seriam a maioria. Outra mudança foi ocorrendo sucessivamente quando alguns clubes se dispuseram a pagar os melhores jogadores para entrarem em suas equipes. Este seria o início de um longo período de transição, não sem atritos, em que o jogo se desenvolveria a um nível profissional.

A motivação por trás dos jogadores pagantes não era apenas ganhar mais partidas. Na década de 1880, o interesse pelo jogo avançou a um nível em que os ingressos foram vendidos para as partidas. E finalmente, em 1885, o futebol profissional foi legalizado e três anos depois foi criada a Liga de Futebol. Durante a primeira temporada, 12 clubes juntaram-se à liga, mas logo mais clubes se interessaram e a competição se expandiu para mais divisões.

Por muito tempo, as equipes britânicas seriam dominantes. Depois de algumas décadas, clubes de Praga, Budapeste e Siena seriam os principais candidatos ao domínio britânico.

Como acontece com muitas coisas na história, as mulheres foram por muito tempo excluídas da participação em jogos. Não foi antes do final do século 19 que as mulheres começaram a jogar futebol. O primeiro jogo feminino oficial aconteceu em Inverness, em 1888.


Nascimento de uma nova liga

Em 20 de agosto de 1920, em uma concessionária Hupmobile em Canton, Ohio, a liga foi formalizada, originalmente como o Conferência Americana de Futebol Profissional, inicialmente consistindo apenas das equipes da Liga de Ohio, embora algumas das equipes tenham diminuído a participação. [4] Um mês depois, em 17 de setembro, a liga foi renomeada para American Professional Football Association, adicionando Buffalo e Rochester da liga de Nova York, e Detroit, Hammond (um esquadrão suburbano de Chicago) e várias outras equipes de circuitos próximos. As onze equipes fundadoras inicialmente chegaram a um acordo sobre a caça furtiva de jogadores e a declaração de um campeão no final da temporada. Thorpe, enquanto ainda jogava pelos Bulldogs, foi eleito presidente. Apenas quatro das equipes fundadoras terminaram o cronograma de 1920 e o invicto Akron Pros conquistou o primeiro campeonato. O número de membros da liga aumentou para 22 times - incluindo mais times de Nova York - em 1921, mas ao longo da década de 1920 o número de membros era instável e a liga não era um esporte nacional importante. Em 24 de junho de 1922, a organização, agora sediada em Columbus, Ohio, mudou seu título pela última vez para a Liga Nacional de Futebol. [5]

Dois membros fundadores, o Chicago Cardinals (agora o Arizona Cardinals) e o Decatur Staleys (agora o Chicago Bears), ainda existem. A franquia Green Bay Packers, fundada em 1919, é o time mais antigo a não mudar de local, mas não começou a jogar na liga até 1921. O New York Football Giants entrou em 1925, seguido pelo Portsmouth Spartans em 1930, mudando-se para Detroit em 1934 para se tornarem Leões. [6] A franquia Indianapolis Colts traça sua história através de vários antecessores, incluindo um dos times fundadores da liga - o Dayton Triangles - mas é considerada uma franquia separada dessas equipes e foi fundada como Baltimore Colts em 1953. Embora as equipes originais da NFL representando Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago e Detroit não existem mais, franquias substitutas foram estabelecidas para essas cidades.

Os primeiros campeonatos foram atribuídos à equipe com o melhor recorde de vitórias e derrotas, inicialmente um tanto aleatória, já que algumas equipes jogaram mais ou menos jogos do que outras, ou jogos agendados contra times não pertencentes à liga, amadores ou colegiados, o que levou à decisão do título um desempate em 1921, um título disputado em 1925 e a programação de um jogo de playoff interno improvisado em 1932. A falta de uma estrutura de liga firme significava que várias equipes eram regularmente adicionadas e removidas da liga a cada ano que um proprietário de franquia pudesse negociar sua franquia em uma cidade por uma na outra (como foi o caso dos Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Bulldogs e Detroit Wolverines), e se um time de mercado maior ou mais estabelecido quisesse um jogador em um iniciante de mercado menor, ele poderia comprar o time abertamente e dobrou-o para ganhar os direitos daquele jogador, como o New York Giants fez com o Wolverines em 1928 para obter Benny Friedman.

Em encontros da liga antes da temporada de 1933, três novos times, os Pirates, os Cincinnati Reds e os Eagles, foram admitidos na NFL. [7] [8] Dez times estavam então na NFL e, a pedido de George Preston Marshall, com o apoio de Halas, a NFL foi reorganizada em uma Divisão Leste e uma Divisão Oeste. Na Divisão Leste estavam o Philadelphia Eagles, o Brooklyn Dodgers, o New York Giants, o Boston Redskins e o Pittsburgh Pirates. Na Divisão Oeste estavam os Chicago Bears, Portsmouth Spartans, Chicago Cardinals, Green Bay Packers e os Cincinnati Reds. Além disso, os dois proprietários convenceram a liga a fazer com que os vencedores das duas divisões se encontrassem em um NFL Championship Game. [9]

Em 1934, todas as equipes de cidades pequenas, com exceção dos Green Bay Packers, mudaram-se ou foram substituídas por equipes em grandes cidades, e até mesmo Green Bay começou a jogar uma parte de sua programação em Milwaukee, muito maior. para obter mais apoio (uma prática que eles continuaram até a década de 1990). Em 1941, a sede corporativa mudou de Columbus, Ohio para Chicago. Durante os primeiros anos da liga, em vez de inventar nomes de times originais, muitos times da NFL simplesmente escolheram o nome do time da Major League Baseball na mesma cidade. Assim, os Pittsburgh Steelers foram os "Pittsburgh Pirates" durante os primeiros sete anos de existência e outras equipes, como Brooklyn Dodgers, Cleveland Indians, Cincinnati Reds, Detroit Tigers, New York Yankees, Washington Senators e Buffalo Bisons representaram a NFL em um vez ou outra. [10]

Um draft anual de jogadores universitários foi realizado pela primeira vez em 1936. [11] [12] O primeiro jogo da NFL televisionado foi em 22 de outubro de 1939 em um jogo que os Eagles perderam por 23-14 para o anfitrião Dodgers no Ebbets Field. [13] [14] Foi durante essa época, no entanto, que a NFL se tornou segregada: não havia jogadores negros no futebol profissional nos Estados Unidos entre 1933 e 1945, principalmente devido à influência de George Preston Marshall, que entrou no liga em 1932 como o dono do Boston Braves. Outros donos da NFL imitaram a política de Marshall apenas para brancos para apaziguar os fãs do sul, e mesmo depois que a barreira da cor da NFL foi quebrada na década de 1950, o Washington Redskins de Marshall permaneceu todo branco até ser forçado a se integrar pela administração Kennedy em 1962. [15] Seu fanatismo, Marshall foi escolhido como membro fundador do Pro Football Hall of Fame inspirado na NFL, principalmente pelas inúmeras inovações (horários fixos, conferências separadas e jogos do campeonato) que Marshall encorajou durante seu tempo na liga.

O futebol universitário era a maior atração, mas no final da Segunda Guerra Mundial, o futebol profissional começou a rivalizar com o jogo universitário pela atenção dos fãs. Mudanças de regras e inovações, como a formação T, levaram a um jogo de ritmo mais rápido e com maior pontuação. A liga também se expandiu a partir de seu berço leste e centro-oeste em 1945, o Cleveland Rams mudou-se para Los Angeles, tornando-se a primeira franquia esportiva de grande liga na Costa Oeste. [16] Em 1950, a NFL aceitou três times - o Cleveland Browns, o San Francisco 49ers e o Baltimore Colts - da extinta All-America Football Conference, expandindo-se para treze clubes. Por um período de três meses em 1950, a liga foi renomeada para Liga Nacional de Futebol Americano, que foi posteriormente alterado de volta. [17] [18] Em 1958, o Baltimore Colts e o New York Giants jogaram "The Greatest Game Ever Played" para o campeonato. Sendo o primeiro jogo de futebol televisionado nacionalmente, junto com seu final emocionante aumentou muito a popularidade da NFL. Por meio dessas descobertas, o futebol profissional finalmente conquistou seu lugar como um esporte importante.

Minorias raciais

A precursora da NFL, a American Professional Football Association, teve vários jogadores minoritários, incluindo jogadores afro-americanos: entre 1920 e 1926, nove jogadores negros serviram para os times da NFL. Também era comum, devido ao número de jogadores talentosos produzidos pelo time de futebol da Carlisle Indian School, ver times (tanto dentro quanto fora da NFL) comercializar abertamente os índios americanos. Na verdade, os índios Oorang de 1922 a 1923 consistiam inteiramente de talento nativo americano. O running back Walter Achiu e o quarterback Arthur Matsu, ambos do Dayton Triangles, foram os primeiros jogadores asiático-americanos na NFL, tendo ingressado na liga em 1927 e 1928, respectivamente. Ignacio Molinet e Jess Rodriguez foram os primeiros jogadores hispânicos na NFL e cada um jogou uma temporada em 1927 e 1929, respectivamente.

No entanto, desde que Carlisle fechou em 1918, o pool de talentos dos indianos havia secado. Enquanto isso, todos os jogadores negros da NFL (incluindo o futuro Hall of Famer Fritz Pollard) foram sumariamente expulsos antes da temporada de 1927 por motivos inexplicáveis. De 1928 a 1932, não mais do que um jogador negro podia ser encontrado na liga a cada temporada, e nenhum jogou mais do que duas temporadas. Em 1933, havia dois: Joe Lillard e Ray Kemp. Lillard foi expulso do Chicago Cardinals por lutar, enquanto Kemp saiu para seguir o que se tornaria uma carreira de treinador de sucesso. As jogadas deixaram a liga totalmente branca, e o dono do Boston Redskins, George Preston Marshall, supostamente usou sua pressão para mantê-la assim pelos próximos anos, embora a política interna e o clientelismo de cada time, bem como a crescente onda de racismo no Os Estados Unidos como um todo também desempenharam um papel significativo. Mesmo durante os anos de guerra, quando muito do talento da NFL estava no exterior lutando na Segunda Guerra Mundial, jogadores como Kenny Washington, que permaneceu nos Estados Unidos, ainda foram rejeitados em favor de jogadores brancos com condições médicas normalmente debilitantes, como cegueira parcial. [ citação necessária ]

A integração com a NFL ocorreu apenas quando o Cleveland Rams quis se mudar para Los Angeles, e o local, o Los Angeles Coliseum, exigiu que eles integrassem sua equipe. Eles então contrataram dois jogadores negros, Kenny Washington e Woody Strode. [19] Outras equipes da NFL eventualmente seguiram o exemplo, mas Marshall recusou-se a integrar os Redskins até ser forçado pela administração Kennedy como uma pré-condição para usar o D.C. Stadium (agora RFK Stadium). Apesar dessa tendência aberta, Marshall foi eleito para o Hall da Fama do Futebol Profissional da NFL em 1963. Em 1946, o Cleveland Browns de uma liga rival de Futebol Profissional, a All-America Football Conference, contratou dois jogadores negros. Em 1960, o novo competidor da NFL, a American Football League, recrutou ativamente jogadores de faculdades menores, predominantemente negras, que haviam sido amplamente ignoradas pela NFL, dando aos jogadores negros dessas escolas a oportunidade de jogar futebol profissional. As primeiras equipes da AFL tinham em média mais negros do que suas contrapartes da NFL. [20]

No entanto, apesar das políticas segregacionistas anteriores da NFL, a clara vantagem competitiva das equipes da AFL com políticas de assinatura liberais afetou os draft da NFL. Em 1969, uma comparação das fotos da equipe do campeonato das duas ligas mostrou os Chefes da AFL com 23 & # 160 jogadores negros de 51 & # 160 jogadores (45%) retratados, enquanto os Vikings da NFL tinham 11 & # 160 negros, de 42 & # 160 jogadores (26%) na fotografia. Os jogadores do Chiefs disseram que um fator motivador para a derrota dos Vikings no Super Bowl IV foi o orgulho de seu time diversificado. Pesquisas recentes mostraram que a atual NFL pós-fusão é de aproximadamente 67-71% de não brancos (isso inclui afro-americanos, polinésios, hispânicos não brancos, asiáticos e pessoas que são mestiças), significativamente mais alta do que a média nacional certas posições, como cornerback e running back, são quase inteiramente pretas.


História por trás da National Football League

A fundação da Liga Nacional de Futebol teve um grande impacto na cultura social dos americanos. Conseguiu isso por causa do amor e orgulho dos americanos por jogos e competição, o aumento da popularidade do futebol em toda a América, especialmente em faculdades e colégios, os trabalhos da televisão, a ascensão do talento de atletas, o início de atletas pagantes e divisão da NFL em duas divisões. (Uma rivalidade dentro de uma rivalidade separada por regiões dos Estados Unidos.)

No leste dos Estados Unidos, um jogo muito semelhante ao futebol foi inventado e jogado em meados do século XIX. Consistia em 30 ou mais jogadores. O objetivo do jogo era chutar uma bola através da linha de gol do outro time. Este jogo estava se tornando extraordinariamente popular, e regras adicionais mais rígidas estavam sendo aplicadas a ele. Este jogo foi chamado de futebol. Neste jogo, duas equipes jogaram, e ambas as equipes tinham regras diferentes para jogá-lo. Um pela regra de McGill e o outro pela regra de Harvard. As regras de Harvard eram mais parecidas com futebol, e as regras de McGill eram mais parecidas com rúgbi. Correr com a bola e desarmar foram as principais razões pelas quais este jogo foi introduzido, não apenas em Harvard, mas em outras faculdades orientais em todos os Estados Unidos.

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Melhorar o jogo era a primeira prioridade neste momento. À medida que este futebol de estilo rugby se tornou popular, Walter Camp desempenhou um papel importante no desenvolvimento de regras que aumentaram a ação e a competição neste jogo.

“O acampamento foi o grande responsável por estabelecer o sistema de baixas e jardas para ganhar e por apresentar o snap central ao zagueiro. Ele também ajudou a configurar o sistema de pontuação em que touchdowns, conversões, gols de campo e seguranças valiam diferentes quantidades de pontos. ” (365) O amor e o orgulho pelo jogo se desenvolveram, assim como uma competição. Escolas secundárias e faculdades organizaram equipes e a competição aumentou. Na verdade, a competição estava ficando tão grande que o esporte estava se tornando violento e perigoso devido à falta de proteção contra tackles e bloqueios. Uma vez que os jogadores sofreram lesões graves devido à falta de equipamento adequado e sem capacetes, Theodore Roosevelt sublinhou que era necessário fazer alterações para tornar este jogo mais seguro.

A fundação do jogo "futebol" foi desenvolvida em meados de 1800, mas não foi realmente organizada até a década de 1920. “Em 17 de setembro de 1920, um grupo de homens se reuniu em Canton, Ohio, no showroom da Hupmobile de Ralph Hay, proprietário da cidade natal Bulldogs. O resultado da reunião trouxe o nascimento da Liga Nacional de Futebol. ” (Profootball)

O futebol profissional começou em 1892, quando William “Pudge” Heffelfinger, um ex-astro de Yale, recebeu US $ 500 para jogar em um único jogo pelo Allegheny Athletic Associate em 12 de novembro, em Pittsburgh, Pensilvânia. Este jogo marcou o início do futebol profissional. Em 1920, o nome da APFA (American Professional Football Association) foi posteriormente alterado para NFL (National Football League) devido à organização do esporte.

Em 1925, o futebol profissional começou a atrair muitos fãs e torcedores ao contratar e pagar grandes atletas para jogar em seus times. Esse esporte acabou atraindo mais de 350.000 fãs para assistir aos jogos daquele ano. A televisão também desempenhou um papel importante em atrair pessoas e ganhar dinheiro. “As redes de TV pagaram milhões de dólares para transmitir os jogos.” (367) Até hoje, a televisão continua a desempenhar um papel importante na hospedagem de eventos de futebol, como o Super Bowl, que é um evento anual televisionado em todo o mundo.

Na década de 1930, a NFL foi dividida em duas divisões, a Divisão Oeste e a Divisão Leste. Os campeões de cada divisão disputariam o primeiro título mundial do futebol profissional. Em meados da década de 1940, a All-American Football Conference foi formada, e consistia em uma liga de oito times, então era uma liga de 13 times após a fusão da NFL. Finalmente, a AFL (American Football League), uma liga de oito times formada na década de 1960, decidiu se fundir com a NFL após seis anos para formar a American Football Conference e a National Football Conference.

A fundação da National Football League impactou a cultura social dos Estados Unidos. O futebol não é apenas um esporte divertido de se jogar, mas é um dos esportes mais, senão o mais popular e útil dos americanos hoje. Muitas pessoas concordam que praticar esportes, especialmente futebol, constrói o caráter, ensina o trabalho em equipe, faz a pessoa aprender a ganhar e perder, ensina disciplina e mantém as crianças cada vez mais velhas fora das ruas. Milhões e milhões de americanos vão assistir aos jogos de futebol todos os anos e sempre assistem ao futebol aos domingos. É quase uma tradição para alguns. O amor e o orgulho pelo jogo sempre estarão em muitos corações, não apenas na Liga Nacional de Futebol, mas em escolas secundárias, faculdades e campos lamacentos em todos os lugares.


Arrowhead Apresenta Dados Clínicos Adicionais Sobre Tratamento Investigacional ARO-AAT Em Pacientes Com Doença Alfa-1 Do Fígado No EASL International Liver Congress

1800-1900: Quem fundou a NFL?

O primeiro evento de futebol profissional notável ocorreu em 1892. O futebol americano como esporte já existia antes disso, mas um jogo entre a Allegheny Athletic Association e o Pittsburgh Athletic Club na Pensilvânia em 1892 foi a primeira vez em que um jogador foi pago para jogar. Neste caso, o jogador foi William & quotPudge & quot Heffelfinger, um ex-aluno de Yale que jogou para o AAA.

Nos anos que se seguiram ao primeiro jogador profissional, houve várias tentativas de lançar uma liga oficial de futebol profissional. Em 1902, havia até mesmo um chamado National Football League, ironicamente com times de jogadores de beisebol da Filadélfia. Mas não havia muito dinheiro ou alarde, e a liga logo acabou.

Outras ligas locais surgiram com vários graus de sucesso. Uma foi a Liga de Ohio, conhecida por ter o atleta de classe mundial Jim Thorpe no Canton Bulldogs. O futebol estava crescendo em popularidade, mas a falta de organização o impedia de crescer ainda mais. Percebendo isso, os proprietários de vários times da Ohio League, como Bulldogs e Akron Pros, se reuniram para uma reunião organizacional que levou à decisão de começar uma nova liga.

Os proprietários realizaram uma segunda reunião, desta vez trazendo equipes adicionais de Nova York, Indiana e Illinois. Todos esses proprietários escolheram um nome: American Professional Football Association. Eles nomearam Jim Thorpe como presidente. Esses foram os fundadores da liga que se tornaria a NFL.

Década de 1920: American Professional Football Association

As equipes das reuniões que seriam algumas das primeiras equipes AFPA foram:

  • Akron Pros
  • Bulldogs Canton
  • Indianos de Cleveland
  • Triângulos Dayton
  • Decatur Staleys
  • Hammond Pros
  • Muncie Flyers
  • Racine Cardinals
  • Rochester Jeffersons
  • Independentes da Ilha Rock

Antes do início da primeira temporada da American Professional Football Association & aposs, quatro outras equipes & # xA0 ingressaram na liga:

  • Buffalo All-Americans
  • Chicago Tigers
  • Colombo Panhandles
  • Detroit Heralds

Apesar de 14 times na liga, a AFPA não manteve a classificação para a temporada. Não houve playoffs. No final da temporada, a associação concedeu o campeonato aos Akron Pros, que não foram derrotados e tiveram & # xA0eight vitórias - apesar do Buffalo All-Americans ter & # xA0nine & # xA0 e do Decatur Staleys ter 10.

Essa falta de organização se tornou um tema recorrente, e a falta de um sistema de playoffs tornou o campeonato ainda mais polêmico. Em 1921, um jogo que deveria ser apenas um jogo de exibição se transformou em um desempate entre Buffalo e o agora Chicago Staleys, que levou o Chicago a ser eleito o campeão da liga. Ainda faltava uma década para um sistema de playoffs estabelecido.

Ao longo dos anos 20, mais equipes & # xA0 foram adicionadas ao AFPA, algumas das quais & # xA0 acabaram se tornando equipes que existem até hoje. Os Green Bay Packers ingressaram em 1921, e os New York Giants em 1925. Essas equipes, junto com os Cardinals (agora no Arizona) e os Staleys (agora os Chicago Bears), ainda são times da NFL.

Foi em 1922 que a AFPA mudou de nome e se tornou a Liga Nacional de Futebol. Não mudou desde então.

A liga continuou a se expandir, e times como Canton Bulldogs, Frankford Yellow Jackets e Providence Steam Roller venceram todos os campeonatos. Mas a NFL não estava ganhando fãs tão rapidamente quanto queria, em grande parte devido à localização da liga no nordeste e no meio-oeste.

1930-1940: os primeiros playoffs e novas equipes

1932 mudou a NFL e a forma como os campeonatos eram atribuídos. Na época, o campeão seria o time com maior percentual de vitórias, mas Chicago Bears e Portsmouth Spartans terminaram a temporada empatados em primeiro lugar. Sem desempates adicionais disponíveis, a liga reverteu uma antiga regra contra os jogos do playoff e realizou o primeiro jogo do campeonato da NFL. Os Bears venceram por 9-0.

Com um jogo de desempate levando a um final de temporada bem-sucedido, a liga reformulou seu sistema em 1933, separando-se do passado e do futebol universitário. Now the teams in the league were divided into divisions, the Eastern Division and Western Division (though the league was still so localized that the westernmost teams were in the Midwest). This now-familiar format was a success, and the division winners (New York Giants and Chicago Bears) met in the Championship Game, which the Bears won 23-21.

This new structure was a massive success, and with playoff runs to follow, fans caught on. Teams began to change as well. Some teams from the 20s and 30s fell off and disappeared from the NFL entirely, while others popped up in their wake - also on the East Coast and in the Midwest - and found themselves competing. The teams in NFL Championship Games in the 30s and 40s may look familiar. Not just the Bears and Giants, but the Green Bay Packers, Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins too.

A burgeoning sport, the NFL finally moved out west in 1946 when Cleveland Rams owner Dan Reeves threatened to leave football entirely if the league wouldn&apost let him relocate the team to Los Angeles. He relented, and by 1949 the Los Angeles Rams were in a Championship Game. The sport was expanding nationally.

1940s-50s: Integration in the NFL

Segregation in the NFL isn&apost discussed as much as segregation in baseball. But the mid-1930s into the 40s saw no black players in the league, a time of complete segregation in the NFL.

The first team to make strides toward ending segregation was the now-Los Angeles Rams, albeit by force: Plessy v. Ferguson meant the L.A. Coliseum couldn&apost lease their stadium to a team that was completely segregated. Thus, in 1946 they signed former UCLA star Kenny Washington in March, and Woody Strode in May.

Other NFL teams were slow to integrate their rosters. On the other hand, most of the teams in the All-America Football Conference had managed to integrate their teams in the late 40s. The AAFC later shut down and folded 3 teams into the NFL: the Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Colts and San Francisco 49ers.

Most teams had begun integrating slowly by the early 50s. The exception, to no one&aposs surprise, was the Washington Redskins. Washington owner George Marshall, a man literally known for being racist more than anything else, steadfastly refused to sign or draft black players. This extended all the way until 1962, when Stewart Udall - the secretary of the interior for most of the 1960s - threatened to revoke the team&aposs lease on the stadium, effectively evicting them. Marshall was forced to relent.

The 50s were a great time for the league. Integration, expansion and impressive championship runs from teams like the Lions and Browns helped increase popularity at a time when baseball fans were growing bored of the constant Yankees World Series victories. Football was becoming the popular new sport.

1960s: The AFL, the First Super Bowl and the Merger

The NFL also started facing competition from other leagues. In the 50s, after a failed attempt to buy an NFL team and bring them to Dallas, oil heir Lamar Hunt formulated plans to create a rival football league. The first official meeting between Hunt and other owners took place in August 1959, and by November the American Football League (AFL) had its first draft.

One owner left before the league could start as the NFL approved their team in Minnesota, but in 1960 the league had a television contract and 8 teams:

  • Boston Patriots
  • Buffalo Bills
  • Dallas Texans
  • Denver Broncos
  • Houston Oilers
  • Los Angeles Chargers
  • New York Titans
  • Oakland Raiders

In the first few years, the AFL had middling success and didn&apost pose much of a threat to the NFL. But they did well enough to, in 1964, sign a new and better TV contract with NBC. This lucrative deal meant more money for the league, and suddenly teams had the funds to compete with the NFL for players. The most noteworthy of these players was Joe Namath, who was drafted by the Cardinals in the NFL and the New York Jets (formerly the titans) in the AFL and chose to sign with the Jets.

The AFL became more popular, and the leagues essentially found themselves in bidding wars, trying to outbid the other for draft picks and even trying to poach players from opposing leagues. Dallas Cowboys owner Tex Schramm approached Lamar Hunt about a potential merger.

A series of secret meetings hammered out the details of the merger, and in June of 1966, the AFL-NFL merger was officially announced. The combined leagues had 24 teams (including newly formed NFL expansion teams Atlanta Falcons and Miami Dolphins) and per the merger would expand to 26 teams by 1968 (which ended up being the New Orleans Saints and Cincinnati Bengals) and 28 teams by 1970 or "soon thereafter" (these teams ended up being the Seattle Seahawks and Tampa Bay Buccaneers).

Another part of the agreement was that while the AFL and NFL would play separate regular season schedules up to 1969, at the end of the season the league champions would play an "AFL-NFL World Championship Game." This was the first iteration of the Super Bowl. The NFL had the easy upper hand in the first two, as the Green Bay Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs and the Oakland Raiders, respectively.

In Super Bowl III, however, the AFL established itself as a league that could compete with the best. Led by the aforementioned Joe Namath, the New York Jets pulled off a huge upset against the Baltimore Colts, who had been favored by a whopping 18 points.

1970s: Rise in Popularity and the First Super Bowl Era Dynasties

The merger had now allowed for the NFL and AFL to be combined into one NFL. The Colts, Browns and Steelers of the NFL agreed to, with the 10 existing AFL teams, become the American Football Conference (AFC), while the remaining NFL teams were the National Football Conference (NFC).

It&aposs the 1970s where the NFL began to take shape into what it is today. Seattle and Tampa Bay were added as teams. The Boston Patriots became the New England Patriots. And the Super Bowl became a much bigger deal, thanks to several teams becoming dominating powerhouses, terrorizing the league and making the Super Bowl on multiple occasions.

From 1970-79, the Dallas Cowboys went to five Super Bowls, winning two. The Pittsburgh Steelers went to and won three Super Bowls (and a fourth in January of 1980). The Minnesota Vikings went toਏour Super Bowls - though they lost all four.

The Miami Dolphins also went to three straight Super Bowls and won two of them in the 1970s. Not as many as the previously mentioned team, but the Dolphins also did something none of those teams accomplished: the perfect season. A 14-0 regular season in 1972, two playoff wins to clinch the AFC and a Super Bowl win over Washington meant they were 17-0 with a championship. Only one team since has had an undefeated regular season they&aposre still the only undefeated championship team.

1980s-90s: USFL Competition, Free Agency and the Franchise Tag

The NFL was now an institution, and by the 80s the Super Bowl was regularly getting over 80 million television viewers. As such, it was time for some more millionaires to try and compete with it.

The United States Football League (USFL) lasted for three seasons, and perhaps could have lasted longer if not for its hubris. Beginning in 1983, the USFL played their games in the spring instead of the fall, and rosters boasted players such as future NFLers and Hall of Fame quarterbacks Jim Kelly and Steve Young.

But the owners, led by New Jersey Generals owner Donald Trump, made the decision to move their games to the fall in an attempt to directly compete with the NFL. A big part of this was filing an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL that alleged that the NFL had established a monopoly that pressured major television networks into not broadcasting fall USFL games.

The jury, after deliberation, found that the NFL did have a monopoly, but did not find it to be at fault for the USFL&aposs problem. As such, the USFL technically won its case but was awarded just one dollar of the $1.7 billion it sought. The league folded soon after.

The NFL, meanwhile, continued to thrive. The dynasties of the 70s were replaced by that of the San Francisco 49ers. The Chicago Bears and New York Giants, two of the oldest NFL franchises, used legendary defenses to get their first Super Bowl championships.

Another team of the 80s and 90s that thrived was the Denver Broncos, thanks to their star quarterback John Elway. Elway&aposs Broncos went to five Super Bowls, winning the last two. He was also an important part of what we know as modern free agency in football.򠫌ording to Sports Illustrated, when negotiations were going on to establish what free agency would look like, Broncos owner Pat Bowlen&aposs fear of losing his quarterback led to what is now known as the "franchise tag," where a team was permitted to choose one player per free agency season that they could "tag" and give a hefty one-year contract to - with the hopes of a long-term deal beyond that year getting finalized.

2000s: The Patriots Dynasty and the Goodell Era

The 2000s saw a dynasty that still exists in the NFL nearly two decades after their first Super Bowl victory - the New England Patriots.

The Patriots had been to just two Super Bowls prior to the 21st century, losing to the Bears in the 80s and the Packers in the 90s. Bill Belichick&aposs Patriots weren&apost expected to dominate at all, but an injury to starting QB Drew Bledsoe in 2001 led to second-year quarterback Tom Brady taking over. A solid year for the young Brady and a good defense led them to a massive upset over the St. Louis Rams in the Super Bowl that season Brady was named MVP of that Super Bowl.

Two years later, they won again. The year after that, they won again. Suddenly the Patriots were an undeniable dynasty, with three Super Bowl championships in four years. With Brady at the helm, Belichick created elite teams and developed a reputation as an all-time great coach. This culminated in the first ever undefeated 16-game season, which the Patriots achieved in 2007 thanks to a record-breaking year from Brady. But an upset by the New York Giants in Super Bowl 42 left them without a title to show for their effort.

Since 2001, the Patriots have been in਎ight Super Bowls, winning five.

The other big change for the NFL in the 2000s was at the commissioner&aposs office. In the middle of the decade, Commissioner Paul Tagliabue announced his retirement. In August of 2006, the NFL owners voted to make Roger Goodell, a longtime NFL employee, the new commissioner.

Goodell inherited a cultural and media juggernaut. In Tagliabue&aposs tenure, the NFL grew exponentially, and the one attempt at a new football league during that time, the XFL, was roundly mocked and lasted just one season. He was now commissioner of arguably the biggest professional sports league in America.

Nos Dias de Hoje

Since Goodell took over, the NFL has continued to thrive, albeit with declining ratings in line with the decline of all television ratings. But his NFL has also been riddled with controversies and public relations nightmares. A few of those include:

  • The 2011 NFL lockout, the first labor dispute the league had since 1987. The lockout lasted 18 weeks.
  • The 2012 referee lockout, where a labor dispute led to the NFL starting the season with replacement referees. Blown calls throughout the first 3 weeks of the season embarrassed the league and energized contract negotiations that led to increased wages and a 401(k).
  • "Deflategate," a scandal about whether Tom Brady was aware of Patriots employees deflating footballs. The NFL suspended Brady forਏour games, a decision that got reversed by the U.S. District Court - and then reinstated by the U.S. Court of Appeals.
  • Punishments for domestic abuse allegations by NFL players that many deemed insufficient, stemming from a two-game suspension to Ravens running back Ray Rice after being charged with assault. When a graphic video of the assault surfaced, Rice was cut by the Ravens and indefinitely suspended by Goodell.
  • Goodell&apossਊnd the NFL owners&apos inability to address players kneeling during the National Anthem to protest police brutality in a way that did not make things more controversial, particularly when they voted on a policy requiring players to either stand for the anthem or star in the locker room without consulting the NFLPA. Not long after, the NFL announced that there would not be a new rule regarding the anthem.

Despite these controversies, the NFL remains a powerhouse in American sports.


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

In the world today there is a lot of different kinds of sports. Most popular to us Americans is probably baseball, basketball, and football. The one thatpeople enjoy watching is probably football. People of all ages like to watch this game, mostly because of the incessant body contact. One will get excited when there is an unbelievable play or a spectacular hit. Football like Classic Rock got popular right when it started. It is an exciting game when it started and will remain exciting in the future. .

The game of football came from soccer. A man name Walter Camp from.

Yale University saw his college team playing soccer and the rest is history. In themid 1800s the first resembling present day football game was played. It was on November 6, 1869. McGill University from Montreal, Canada played against.

Universidade de Harvard. Football was only play in the eastern United States untill itgot popular in 1880. It then spread all over the U.S.A. That"s why now there isthe National Football League.

In order to score points a team must advance the ball down the field. Thereare two main ways for a team to do that. Either by throwing or running the ball. A quarterback can throw the ball to a receiver that is down field. The quarterback is not the only passer. Anybody on the team can become the passer. A play that tells this is call the flick flicker. It is when the quarterback pitch the ball back to the runningback. He then feigns to throw, and draws all the defense to him. That makes a receiver open to throw to. Most of the running is done by the runningback. Running is not as effective as throwing, but if there is a opening he can run all the way. Running like throwing can be done by anyone.

In football there is three ways of scoring. A touchdown, field goal, and a safety. A touchdown is mostly scored by the offense. To score, a team needs to run or catch a pass over the opposing team"s goal line.


Liga Nacional de Futebol

The National Football League can trace its history back to the late nineteenth century when Yale All-American guard William Heffelfinger was paid $500 to play against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. This makes Heffelfinger the first paid professional football player in the United States. Football remained mostly out of the national eye prior to the 1920s during the 1910s, American football was a regional sport with no formal league authority. One of the more prominent divisions was the Ohio League, which attracted acclaimed athletes including Jim Thorpe. As football became a more popular sport, attempts to form a national league began. When World War I began, the sport was sidelined. With many players entering into the armed forces, organizations either had to cut down on players or abandon the team altogether. Some teams decided to start drafting the remaining players who stayed stateside. This national recruiting of displaced players started the development of a national league. There were two main areas where larger, multi-state teams were focused: the Eastern Seaboard and the Midwestern region. Private businesses and individual communities began to sponsor these teams, seeing potential for a profitable market. As football rose in popularity, local teams became a source of pride for the businesses and towns.

The first major attempt to unify the various professional football teams occurred in 1920, with the formation of the American Professional Football Association. The league was founded in Canton, Ohio, where five of the teams originated. Founders organized the calendar into an eleven-game schedule with a champion declared at the end of each season, and also struck an agreement on player poaching. The league’s roster included: the Canton Bulldogs, the Cleveland Tigers, the Dayton Triangles, the Akron Professionals, the Rochester (NY) Jeffersons, the Rock Island Independents, the Muncie Flyers, the Decatur Staleys, the Chicago Cardinals, the Buffalo All-Americans, the Chicago Tigers, the Columbus Panhandles, the Detroit Heralds, and the Hammond Pros. The American Professional Football Association’s first president was Jim Thorpe, who played and coached for the Canton Bulldogs during the 1910s. Under Thorpe's leadership, the Bulldogs were the unofficial world champions in 1916, 1917, and 1919. His contributions to the game led him to become the highest-paid player in the league during its early years. Thorpe retired as a player from professional football in 1928 while he played for the Chicago Cardinals.

In 1922, the American Professional Football Association officially changed its name to the National Football League. In the league’s early decades, there was an inconsistent turnover of teams. Numerous communities attempted team sponsorship, but quickly realized that they could not cover the expenses required of a sponsor. Additionally, teams frequently moved, lured away by other communities that offered more lucrative financial deals. During this era in football history, Ohio became home to many different teams including:

· Canton Bulldogs (1920-1923, 1926)

· Cleveland Tigers (1920-1921)

· Akron Professionals (1920-1926)

· Dayton Triangles (1920-1929)

· Columbus Panhandles (1920-1922)

· Cincinnati Celts (1921-1921)

· Marion Oorang Indians (1922-1923)

· Columbus Tigers (1923-1924) (1926-1926)

· Cleveland Indians (1923-1923) (1931-1931)

· Cleveland Bulldogs (1924-1925) (1927-1927)

· Portsmouth Spartans (1930-1934)

· Cleveland Browns (1949-1996) (1999-present)

· Cincinnati Bengals (1968-present)

Because of Ohio's prominent role in professional football, the National Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton, Ohio, where the league began in 1920.


National Football League (Dixie Forever)

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Western Football Conference (WFC). The NFL is one of the five major professional sports leagues in North America and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 18-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 18 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference (four division winners and two wild card teams) advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Union Bowl (called Yankee Bowl in the Confederate States), which is usually held in the last Sunday in January, and then the winner of the Dixie Bowl and the Yankee Bowl compete on the first Sunday in February which is played between the champions of the UFC and CFC.

The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the Western Football League (WFL) in 1966, and the first Union Bowl was held at the end of that season the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top Five tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner, who has broad authority in governing the league.

The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with 13 (nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowl championships afterwards) the team with the most Super Bowl championships is the Pittsburgh Steelers with six. The current NFL champions are the Philadelphia Eagles, who defeated the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LII, their first Super Bowl championship after winning three NFL titles before the Super Bowl era.


The History of the American and National League, Part I

Baseball’s history is rich and complex, full of colorful characters, timeless moments and tremendous achievements. It is the story of racism and redemption, doctored balls and labor strikes, players and owners, victory and defeat. Just like the sport itself, baseball’s history has been both unpredictable and bound by cause-and-effect.

In order to appreciate where the sport of baseball is in the year 2008, we need to understand appreciate the past. In the coming weeks, I will provide a cursory overview of various aspects of baseball’s history, starting today with Expansion, Part I.

At the end of this series, I will provide some suggestions for books to read if you are interested. These posts will barely scratch the surface of what happened and why, and it behooves anyone truly interested in America’s national past time to dig into more depth.

NOTE: Part II can be found here.

The Origin of the National and American Leagues

Success breeds imitation. And throughout its history, baseball was awfully successful.

The National League was formed in 1876. Because this was successful, the American Association was created in 1881 to compete with the NL. In order to attract fans, the AA instituted several policies that the NL lacked: they played games on Sundays and they sold beer at the ballpark. They also undercut the NL, charging 25 cents for admission, rather than 50 cents. The AA also began to compete for players with the NL.

In 1884, the Union Association was formed, but only lasted one year. Then, in 1890, the Players League began, but also only lasted one year. However, the existence of the Players League had a residual effect on the longer-standing leagues: namely, the Players League contributed to the demise of the American Association in 1891. The AA had been consistently weaker than the NL during its ten-year existence, causing some of the stronger AA teams to make the jump over to the NL. The PL stole additional players from the AA and undercut its ticket prices, causing it to finally fold.

As the AA got weaker, the NL expanded. During the last three years of the AA’s existence, eight AA teams jumped to the NL. Four of those teams remain to this day: the Cardinals, Dodgers, Pirates and Reds. After the AA folded, the National League became a 12-team monopoly that lasted into the early 1900s.

By 1900, the 12-team circuit wasn’t working. Attendance was highly concentrated in only seven cities, and there were too many consistently bad teams, lessening excitement (and attendance) towards the end of the season. The owners got together and decided to reduce the league to eight teams. Thus, teams in Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville and Washington were eliminated, leaving the following teams:

Boston Beaneaters, Brooklyn Superbas, Chicago Orphans, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants, Philadelphia Phillies, Pittsburgh Pirates, and St Louis Perfectos.

When the NL reduced its teams, a minor league called the Western League saw an opportunity. In 1899, Bancroft Johnson, commissioner of the Western League, renamed his league the American League. In 1901 – the year after the NL contracted four teams – the American League removed itself from the National Agreement (the understanding between the National League and the various minor league circuits) and declared itself to be a Major League, alongside the National League. They also expanded, placing teams into three of the four cities that had lost their NL team – Baltimore, Cleveland, and Washington – as well as placing some teams into cities that already had an NL team – Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia. The original American League consisted of the following teams:

Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.

The National League was furious. They tried to push aside the upstart AL and regain their profitable monopoly. However, it soon became apparent that the AL wasn’t going anywhere, and, in true American fashion, the NL realized that if they couldn’t beat the AL, they should join them. In 1903 the two leagues signed a new version of the National Agreement, under which they agreed that they would each be a major league, and their champions would play each other in the World Series (a fantastic marketing and profit opportunity for the two leagues).

Thus, starting in 1903, the United States featured two eight-team baseball leagues: the American and National Leagues, whose winners would play each other in the World Series. And that remained intact for 50 years.

Bill Veeck would change all of that.

In 1951, Veeck purchased the St Louis Browns (originally the Milwaukee Brewers, they moved to St Louis and were re-named the Browns in 1902). Veeck, the former owner of the Cleveland Indians, was known for his various stunts. Perhaps his best-known stunt involved signing Eddie Gaedel, who was three-feet, seven inches tall. Gaedel had one at bat in his career, during which he donned a uniform with the number “1/8” and wore elf-life slippers with the ends turned up. Gaedel walked on four straight pitches, and was promptly replaced by a pinch runner. Infuriated at the affront to the sanctity of the game, American League president Will Harridge immediately voided Gaedel’s contract, leaving him with a perfect 1.000 career on-base percentage (as a direct result of this incident, the commissioner of baseball must now approve all player contracts). Needless to say, Veeck was not held in high esteem by the other owners.

When he purchased the Browns, Veeck believed that the city of St. Louis was too small for two teams, and he hoped to push out the struggling Cardinals. However, the Cardinals were soon bought by August Busch Jr., the president of Anheuser-Busch, who announced that he had no intentions of moving the Cardinals. Therefore, Veeck decided that he wanted to move the Browns.

Veeck first tried to move back to the Browns’ original city, Milwaukee, but he was blocked by the other owners. He then tried to move to Baltimore, but was again blocked by the owners. Lacking leverage, he was forced to sell the team to a Baltimore-based group. With Veeck out of the picture, the other owners approved the Browns’ move to Baltimore (foreshadowing a contentious move of a football Browns team to Baltimore decades later) in 1954. The period of stability in the AL and NL was over.

In 1950, real-estate businessman Walter O’Malley acquired a majority stake in the Brooklyn Dodgers. Before long, he began to look for an improvement over the Dodgers home, Ebbets Field, which was built in 1913 and had become old and dilapidated by the 1950s. New York City Construction Coordinator Robert Moses wanted O’Malley to use a site in Flushing Meadows, Queens, for his new ballpark. Moses envisioned a city-built, city-owned park, but O’Malley wanted nothing of the sort. When it became clear that O’Malley was not going to find any suitable land in Brooklyn, he began looking elsewhere.

World War II had been over for less than a decade when O’Malley purchased the Dodgers. The war had been the first to involve an air force, as technology had become sophisticated enough to build a fleet of fighter jets. It wasn’t long until the technology allowed commercial flights as well. Sure enough, in 1952, the first commercial jet – the de Havilland Comet – was introduced. The Boeing 707 was introduced not long after, and was the first widely successful commercial jet, signaling the beginning of air travel in the United States.

Thus, it is not a coincidence that talk of expanding baseball westward began to pick up steam after the war. Officials in Los Angeles had been actively lobbying for a major league team, and with the advent of the jet, transcontinental travel was cheaper and faster than ever before. When it became known that O’Malley was looking for land outside of Brooklyn, Los Angeles quickly offered him a plot on which to build a park.

However, it would be impractical to move only one team across the country. If Major League baseball was truly going to expand out west, they would need at least two teams. At the same time that O’Malley was offered land in Los Angeles, New York Giants owner Horace Stoneham was looking for a replacement for his stadium, the Polo Grounds (which had opened in 1890 and was extensively renovated in 1911 after a fire). Stoneham also began to consider options outside of New York – the Giants had a minor league team in Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Stoneham considered moving his Giants to Minnesota. However, O’Malley then approached Stoneham with an idea: why not move west?

The mayor of San Francisco was excited about the opportunity to have a major league team, and provided Stoneham with the necessary land for a ballpark. It was settled: O’Malley and Stoneham would move their teams to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants met on opening day of 1958 in Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, signaling the beginning of a new and busy era of expansion and movement in baseball.

The Continental League

New York State Attorney William Shea was not happy about losing two of his state’s three teams to California. Shea tried to get another Major League team in New York, either via expansion or by moving an existing team. However, his efforts were to no avail. Then, in November of 1958, he had an idea: create a third Major League, the Continental League. He named Branch Rickey president (to give the league some credibility), and the Continental League was formally announced in 1959. Teams were going to be created in Denver, Houston, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Toronto, and, of course, New York City. Three additional teams were expected, thus making it an eight-team league, a la the AL and NL.

As you might imagine, Major League baseball was not happy with this idea. They had enjoyed a very prosperous monopoly for over 50 years besides, history had shown that three major leagues didn’t work. Major League baseball came up with a compromise: it announced that for the first time since the American League had joined the National League back in 1903, it would expand. Both the AL and NL decided to add two new teams to their ranks, with priority given to cities that did not already have a team. However, the National League also extended an invitation to the owners of New York’s Continental League team to join the National League instead. When they accepted, Shea finally got his wish, and it more or less officially killed the Continental League.

The American League expanded in 1961, adding the Washington Senators (the previous Senators team had moved to Minnesota and were re-named the Minnesota Twins in 1961) and Anaheim Angels, giving baseball more of a presence out west.

The National League expanded in 1962, adding the Houston Colt .45s along with the New York Mets (incidentally, the Mets paid homage to their New York predecessors with an orange “NY” from the Giants logo on a Dodger-blue cap) .
There were also several teams that moved in the 1950s, besides the St. Louis Browns. In 1953, the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee and in 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City. As the country expanded west and small cities grew larger, so did major league baseball expand and grow as well.

At the beginning of the 1962 season, Major League baseball looked like this:


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

Liga Nacional de Futebol

General Comments

The images for historical NFL helmets illustrated on the various pages for each division are based heavily on information derived from one particular web site, 'Mike Stanhope's NFL Helmet page' (site appears to no longer exist as of 2020) and were mostly done in the period 1999- 2000. The dates of use for each helmet and the accompanying comments are also derived primarily from this source, which appears to have been very carefully researched and which I believe to be highly accurate, though I have made a number of additions through the years and have found a small number of apparent errors. Helmets for teams that have changed names or have been relocated are placed in the section for the franchise's current name (i.e, the Houston Oilers helmets are placed in the Tennessee Titans section on the AFC South page), with the exception of the Cleveland Browns.

Please click on the links below to see the page for each NFL division.

NFL History

The links below will open new browser windows presenting lists of NFL Super Bowl, Conference, and Divisional champions in "Helmet Project" format. The Super Bowl and Conference champions are listed since the first Super Bowl game the Divisional champions are listed back to 1970, the first year of the NFL's six-division format and of the AFL-NFL merger. The years listed refer to the football season in question, rather than the dates when the championship game was played (for example, "2017" is listed for the Philadelphia Eagles' recent Super Bowl victory (played in 2018), which occurred at the end of the 2017 football season).

After careful consideration, I elected to display the current helmet for each team on these pages, rather than the one used by the team during the year listed, to more clearly illustrate the ebb and flow of power among the teams through the years. The use of multiple helmets for each team in such a display would interfere with the eye's ability to grasp the underlying patterns, such as the prolonged dominance of a small number of teams in the 1970s, and the emergence of great parity since about 1990. Besides, you can always see what helmet design team X wore in year XXXX on the divisional pages at the links further up on this page.

The Pro Bowl

At the end of each NFL season since 1939, the league has held an exhibition game featuring the players deemed to have excelled during the previous season. Prior to the 1970 football season, the Pro Bowl was a game between teams representing the league's Eastern and Western Conferences from 1970 to 2012, and from 2016 to present the two teams have represented the American Conference and the National Conference. From 2013 through 2015, the Pro Bowl was contested by two teams drafted by Hall of Fame NFL players, without regard to conference or NFL team (for example, the 2013 game was "Team [Jerry] Rice" vs "Team [Deion] Sanders").

Apparently from the game played January 29, 1979 to present (including the "non-conferenced" teams of the 2013 - 2015 years), the players selected for the Pro Bowl game have worn the helmets of their respective NFL teams during the game, but prior to 1979, a single helmet design was used by all players on each team. Six pairs of helmet designs used during the period 1960 through 1978 have been identified (those shown below). Some of the discrepancies related to the dates of use of these designs may be due to the fact that the Pro Bowl game played in January of Year X is often referred to as the "(Year X-1) Pro Bowl".


Assista o vídeo: Após Morte Esconderijo de Lázaro é Descoberto e Choca a Todos (Novembro 2021).