A história

Eleição de 1936: Um Deslizamento de Terras Democrático


O Partido Republicano se reuniu em Cleveland, Ohio, em junho de 1936. Landon, eleito governador do Kansas em 1934, o único governador republicano a ter sucesso em todo o país naquele ano. Franklin D. Roosevelt foi novamente nomeado pelos democratas . Em um discurso em Chicago, em 14 de outubro de 1936, Roosevelt declarou: "Nesta viagem pelo país, conversei com fazendeiros. Eu voltei para casa naquele ponto." Esta noite, neste centro de negócios, dou a mesma mensagem aos empresários da América - para escolher quem fabrica e vende os bens processados ​​que a nação usa e para os homens e mulheres que trabalham para eles. "A eles eu digo: vocês têm um depósito em um banco? É mais seguro hoje do que sempre esteve em nossa história. O dia 1º de outubro último marcou o fim do primeiro ano completo em cinquenta e cinco anos sem uma única quebra de um banco nacional nos Estados Unidos. "A oposição de um tipo menos ortodoxo do que o Partido Republicano desenvolveu-se como Nós vamos. Coughlan fundou a União Nacional para o Progresso Social em novembro de 1934 em oposição aos males gêmeos do capitalismo e do comunismo, ambos os quais Coughlan declarou serem podres. A União Nacional atraiu o Dr. Huey P. Long defendeu uma redistribuição geral da riqueza e gravitou à União juntamente com outros pensadores radicais. Desse grupo heterogêneo surgiu um plano para candidatar Long à presidência em 1936, mas ele foi inconvenientemente assassinado em 8 de setembro de 1935. No verão de 1936, o NUSP tornou-se o Partido da União e realizou uma convenção nacional. O senador William E. Borah, de Idaho, participou e teve algum apoio. Depois de receber um pequeno número de votos em novembro de 1936, o partido se desfez em grande parte em 1938. O Partido Socialista nomeou novamente Norman Thomas, que lutou para manter a plataforma do partido identificado com posições significativamente à esquerda dos democratas. Ele teve sucesso, mas o público votante não considerou a posição socialista pragmática e Thomas recebeu menos votos populares em 1936 do que em 1932. O povo respondeu à mensagem de Roosevelt. Antes dessa época, Maine era considerado um termômetro para os resultados nacionais, e um ditado popular era: "Como o Maine vai, assim vai a nação." Em 1936, isso foi alterado para, “Assim como o Maine vai, assim vai Vermont.” No Capitólio, os resultados foram igualmente desiguais. Na Câmara dos Representantes, os eleitores enviaram apenas 88 republicanos em comparação com 334 democratas. As pesquisas de opinião nacionais eram relativamente novas em 1936, mas George Gallop e Elmo Roper previram uma vitória substancial para Roosevelt. Farley previu a Roosevelt que na eleição de 1936 seu chefe venceria todos os estados, exceto Vermont e Maine, o que se provou correto. Resumo Literário chegou a uma conclusão diferente. A vitória esmagadora de Roosevelt ajudou a colocar o Digest fora do mercado.

Eleição de 1936
Candidatos

Festa

Eleitoral
Voto

Popular
Voto

Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.)
John N. Garner (Texas)

Democrático

523

27,476,673

Alfred M. Landon (Kansas.)
Frank Knox (Illinois)

Republicano

8

16,679,583

William Lemke (Dakota do Norte)
Thomas C. O`Brian (Mass.)

União

0

892,793



Eleição presidencial de 1936 Fatos e resultados

A Eleição Presidencial de 1936 ocorreria durante a Grande Depressão e seria um momento de realinhamento dos partidos políticos.

Franklin D. Roosevelt havia começado seu New Deal após vencer a eleição de 1932. Embora suas ações fossem nobres, pouco fizeram para deter a depressão. a depressão continuou, apesar de suas reformas, no entanto, ele deu aos americanos esperança e uma visão do futuro.

Embora o New Deal parecesse admirável, Roosevelt estava começando a violar a Constituição para conseguir que sua legislação fosse aprovada. Seu New Deal foi acusado de ser um desperdício e ineficiente. No entanto, os americanos estavam procurando respostas e Roosevelt parecia tê-las.

Ao longo do primeiro mandato de FDR & rsquos, ele utilizou o rádio para se comunicar com os americanos. Essas conversas ao lado da lareira eram importantes para os americanos, pois eles costumavam se reunir para ouvir o presidente e ouvir o estado da união. Suas habilidades oratórias eram excelentes e a maioria dos americanos confiava nele.

Os republicanos não pareciam ter uma boa resposta nesta eleição.

Os candidatos eram os seguintes:

  • Republicano: Alf Landon e o vice-presidente Frank Knox
  • Democratas: Franklin D. Roosevelt e vice-presidente John Nance Garner

Capítulo 8: Deslizamento de terras democrático

Os nova-iorquinos fazem fila em uma fila de pão perto do cruzamento da Sixth Avenue com a 42nd Street na cidade de Nova York em 1932 durante o auge da Grande Depressão.
Imagem cortesia da Biblioteca FDR / National Archives and Records Administration

Família de posseiros de Oklahoma na Califórnia, c.a. 1935
Imagem cortesia da Biblioteca do Congresso

Tripulações de homens temporários trabalham em um armazém de mercadorias excedentes em San Francisco, Califórnia, 27 de dezembro de 1934
Imagem cortesia da National Archives and Records Administration

Presidente Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933
Imagem cortesia da Biblioteca do Congresso

O cartoon de William Hudson retrata as dificuldades republicanas em campanha contra a legislação do New Deal do presidente democrata Franklin Delano Roosevelt em 1936
Imagem cortesia da Biblioteca do Congresso

Mapa do distrito eleitoral de Florence Kahn, criado pelo Office of the Clerk, Câmara dos Representantes dos EUA, com base nos "Estatutos da Califórnia, quadragésima nona sessão do Legislativo, 1931"

Vão principal da ponte Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge com o horizonte de São Francisco, Califórnia, 8 de julho de 1945
Imagem cortesia da National Archives and Records Administration


Resultados da eleição de 1936

A vitória de FDR em 1936 foi a maior vitória eleitoral da história americana.

O candidato republicano Alfred Landon conquistou apenas dois estados = Maine e Vermont. Por muito tempo um termômetro das eleições presidenciais, Maine uma vez se gabou: "Como o Maine vai, assim vai a nação." Agora, os democratas brincaram: "Assim como vai o Maine, também vai Vermont".

Uma nova e poderosa maioria democrata emergiu em 1936. Conhecida como a coalizão "New Deal", dominou a política nacional por décadas. Incluía o Sul tradicionalmente democrático, junto com eleitores étnicos urbanos, fazendeiros e trabalhadores organizados - cujas fileiras estavam crescendo rapidamente com a ajuda da Lei Wagner. Os afro-americanos foram o último grupo da coalizão. Aliado próximo ao partido de Lincoln desde a Guerra Civil, os eleitores negros mudaram-se decisivamente para o partido de FDR em 1936.


Os 10 maiores deslizamentos de terra na história das eleições presidenciais

Como aprendemos nas 10 eleições mais próximas de todos os tempos, muitas disputas estão fechadas e não sabemos até a noite da eleição quem ganhou.

Mas algumas campanhas terminam antes mesmo de começarem. Aqui & # 8217s uma olhada nos 10 maiores deslizamentos de terra na história presidencial dos EUA.

10. Lyndon Baines Johnson sobre Barry Goldwater (1964)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 486-52
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 90.33

LBJ conquistou 44 estados e 61,1% do voto popular, o maior percentual desde a eleição de 1820 (sobre o qual você aprenderá mais a seguir).

9. Ronald Reagan vence Jimmy Carter (1980)

(CARLOS SCHIEBECK / AFP via Getty Images)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 489-49
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 90.89

O desempenho de Carter & # 8217 nos quatro anos anteriores e a ascensão do moderno movimento conservador americano pavimentaram o caminho para Reagan desfrutar de uma grande vitória. Reagan é o único não titular a aparecer nesta lista.

8. Abraham Lincoln sobre George McClellan (1864)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 212-21
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 90.99

Apenas 25 estados participaram desta eleição, pois 11 haviam se separado da União. Lincoln venceu facilmente a reeleição sobre o ex-general da União George McClellan.

7. Thomas Jefferson sobre Charles C. Pinckney (1804)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 162-14
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 92.05

A popular compra da Louisiana impulsionou a oferta de reeleição de Jefferson & # 8217s. Ele obteve 72,8 por cento dos votos contra o oponente federalista Charles C. Pinckney, da Carolina do Sul.

6. Richard Nixon vence George McGovern (1972)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 520-17
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 96.65

Nixon venceu a eleição que gerou Watergate em uma caminhada, obtendo 60,7% dos votos populares e vencendo em todos os estados, exceto um (Massachusetts).

5. Ronald Reagan sobre Walter Mondale (1984)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 525-13
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 97.58

Uma economia forte levou Reagan a uma vitória decisiva na reeleição em todos os estados, exceto Mondale e o nativo de Minnesota # 8217. Seu total de 525 votos eleitorais continua sendo o maior número de votos eleitorais jamais recebido por um candidato presidencial.

4. Franklin Delano Roosevelt sobre Alf Landon (1936)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 523-8
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 98.49

FDR venceu sua primeira candidatura à reeleição facilmente, já que as políticas do New Deal, como previdência social e desemprego, eram extremamente populares. Roosevelt venceu todos os estados, exceto Maine e Vermont.

3. James Monroe (1820)

Resultados do colégio eleitoral: 231-1
Porcentagem de votos do colégio eleitoral: 99.57

Monroe teve um caminho fácil para a reeleição, pois os federalistas não conseguiram apresentar um candidato. Monroe teria sido eleito por unanimidade, não fosse por um eleitor solitário que deu seu voto a John Quincy Adams.

1 e 2. George Washington

Washington concorreu sem oposição duas vezes para o recém-criado cargo de presidente e ganhou todos os votos eleitorais em cada ocasião.


5. Lyndon Johnson derrota Barry Goldwater, 1964 (margem de 22,58%)

Em uma das mais esmagadoras vitórias eleitorais presidenciais da história dos EUA, Lyndon Baines Johnson, que havia servido como presidente da US.A. desde o assassinato de John F. Kennedy em 1963, derrotou o candidato republicano, Barry Goldwater, nas eleições de 1964. Ao longo da campanha, Goldwater criticou a agenda doméstica liberal de Johnson e defendeu sua própria posição em relação ao veto da histórica Lei dos Direitos Civis. Ele também ameaçou usar a força para desmantelar o regime de governo comunista de Castro em Cuba e sugeriu a possibilidade de usar armas nucleares contra o Vietnã do Norte para alcançar os objetivos de seu próprio país. A entrega severa de Goldwater e as políticas duras não conseguiram influenciar a população americana. A eleição terminou com uma vitória esmagadora para Johnson que, por uma margem surpreendente de 22,58% no voto popular, agora se tornou o presidente dos EUA por um mandato completo.


A vitória de Roosevelt no deslizamento de terras nas eleições presidenciais de 1936

TÓPICOS CHAVE
TÓPICOS-CHAVE TÓPICOS-CHAVE TÓPICOS-CHAVE TÓPICOS-CHAVE O que foi responsável pela vitória esmagadora de Franklin Delano Roosevelt na eleição presidencial de 1936? A) A apatia da maioria dos eleitores republicanos B) A incapacidade do Partido Republicano de disseminar sua mensagem C) A extrema popularidade do New Deal entre os eleitores americanos D) A velhice e a saúde precária de seu oponente, Alf Landon 86. [1] PRINCIPAIS TÓPICOS PRINCIPAIS TÓPICOS Ele era mais conhecido como um candidato presidencial republicano, derrotado em uma vitória esmagadora por Franklin D. Roosevelt na eleição presidencial de 1936. [1] TÓPICOS PRINCIPAIS Após a Suprema Corte declarar a Lei de Recuperação Nacional inconstitucional, e com sua vitória esmagadora na eleição presidencial de 1936, Franklin Roosevelt tenta apoiar suas outras reformas do New Deal elaborando um plano para "embalar" a Suprema Corte com juízes simpáticos à sua missão. [1] De acordo com o historiador Michael J. Webber, a vitória esmagadora de Roosevelt foi resultado da formação de uma "coalizão do New Deal", que consistia em "trabalho organizado, minorias religiosas e étnicas, os pobres urbanos, liberais e progressistas" (Webber , Michael J. New Deal Fat Cats: Negócios, Trabalho e Financiamento de Campanha na Eleição Presidencial de 1936. [1] O Presidente Roosevelt obteve uma vitória esmagadora na eleição presidencial de 1936. [1]

Essa linha de investigação nasceu da vitória esmagadora do presidente Franklin Roosevelt na eleição de 1936. [1]

O que foi responsável pela vitória esmagadora de Franklin Delano Roosevelt na eleição presidencial de 1936? A) A apatia da maioria dos eleitores republicanos B) A incapacidade do Partido Republicano de disseminar sua mensagem C) A extrema popularidade do New Deal entre os eleitores americanos D) A velhice e a saúde precária de seu oponente, Alf Landon 86. [2]

A vitória esmagadora na eleição de 1936 encorajou o presidente a propor um plano que mudaria o equilíbrio político na Suprema Corte ao adicionar novos juízes de sua escolha e, assim, aumentar o número de juízes da Suprema Corte. [1] Apesar da vitória esmagadora de Franklin D. Roosevelt, poucas eleições tiveram um significado mais duradouro para cientistas políticos, historiadores e acadêmicos de comunicação do que a eleição presidencial de 1932. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 opôs o presidente democrata e o ex-governador de Nova York Franklin D. Roosevelt e o vice-presidente John Garner, eleitos em uma vitória esmagadora quatro anos antes, contra a chapa republicana do governador do Kansas, Alf Landon, e do editor de jornais de Chicago, Frank Knox. [1] O presidente democrata em exercício Franklin D. Roosevelt obteve 60,8 por cento do voto popular nas eleições presidenciais de 1936, com uma margem de vitória sobre o republicano Alfred E. Landon de 24,26 por cento. [1]

A eleição presidencial americana de 1924 viu a segunda maior vitória esmagadora da história dos Estados Unidos, quando o presidente Calvin Coolidge, o candidato republicano nas eleições, derrotou John Davis, o candidato democrata. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1928 marcou o início de uma vitória esmagadora para o candidato republicano, Herbert Hoover, que venceu por uma larga margem de 17,41% nas eleições. [1] Jon D., do King of Prussia, Pensilvânia, escreve com uma pergunta na Mailbag Friday: "Tem-se falado muito sobre uma vitória esmagadora durante esta recente eleição presidencial. [1]

Pesquisa Literary Digest: Na eleição presidencial de 1936, o candidato republicano Alf Landon desafiou o presidente Franklin Roosevelt. [1] O Partido Republicano durante a eleição presidencial de 1936 foi firmemente contra as medidas implementadas pela administração Roosevelt e, como resultado, foram "anti-New Deal", como sugere o cartoon de Knott. [1] Essas medidas visavam aumentar o consumo e diminuir o desemprego e também acrescentaram "novos benefícios da previdência social, como pensões de aposentadoria e seguro-desemprego". (Savage 846) Quando a eleição presidencial de 1936 e a ilustração do desenho animado de Knott aconteceram, o país precisava decidir se continuaria com tais políticas e reeleger Roosevelt ou abandonar o New Deal e trazer um eleito presidencial republicano. [1] O partido democrata durante a eleição presidencial de 1936 estava preparado para apoiar Roosevelt e suas políticas do New Deal. [1] O cartunista John Knott oferece ao público um vislumbre de vários pontos de vista sobre as políticas do New Deal implementadas pela administração Roosevelt antes da eleição presidencial de 1936. [1] A campanha começou! é um cartoon político de John Francis Knott exibindo as visões partidárias das políticas do New Deal como uma solução para a Grande Depressão anterior à eleição presidencial de 1936. [1] A eleição presidencial "foi, em muitos aspectos, um referendo sobre o papel ativista assumido pelo governo federal desde o início do New Deal". (Webber, Michael J. New Deal Fat Cats: Negócios, Trabalho e Financiamento de Campanha na Eleição Presidencial de 1936. [1] The Campaign is On! De John Francis Knott fornece ao visualizador um instantâneo de vários pontos de vista sobre o New Deal políticas que levaram à eleição presidencial de 1936. [1]

A eleição presidencial de 1936 foi a eleição presidencial dos EUA mais desigual em termos de votos eleitorais e a segunda maior vitória em termos de voto popular. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 foi conhecida como uma das eleições presidenciais mais desiguais da história dos Estados Unidos em termos de votos eleitorais desde Monroe em 1820 (Boller, P.249). [1] Ele foi o candidato do Partido Republicano na eleição presidencial de 1936, Landon nasceu em 1887 em West Middlesex, Pensilvânia, filho de Anne e John Manuel Landon. [1] Seja qual for o resultado de tais debates, não pode haver dúvida de que a eleição presidencial de 1936 foi um momento crucial na história política americana, marcando uma das poucas ocasiões em que uma coalizão de minorias normalmente fora da estrutura de poder americana foi capaz de exercer uma influência significativa no processo político. [1] A Eleição Presidencial Católicos e Política de 1936 Sala de Aula de História Católica Americana Você está usando um navegador desatualizado. [1] Na eleição presidencial de 1936, os americanos reelegeram FDR para um segundo mandato. [1] Estudos anteriores da eleição presidencial de 1936 discutem elementos como a vulnerabilidade de FDR antes da campanha e a fraqueza do candidato republicano Alf Landon. [1] Este ano marca o 70º aniversário da derrota de Alf Landon por Franklin D. Roosevelt nas eleições presidenciais de 1936. [1] Dizer que Alf Landon não se saiu muito bem na eleição presidencial de 1936 é um eufemismo. [1] Problema 21E: Pesquisa Literary Digest: Na eleição presidencial de 1936, Rep. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 provou ser uma batalha decisiva, não apenas para moldar o futuro político da nação, mas também para o futuro das pesquisas de opinião. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 foi extraordinariamente desigual. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 serve como um outlier estatístico. [1] Novo site sobre bibliotecas da Universidade da Eleição Presidencial de 1936 Você está usando um navegador desatualizado. [1]


Na esteira da vitória esmagadora de Franklin Roosevelt na reeleição em 1936, era uma questão em aberto se o Partido Republicano seria capaz de servir como um partido de oposição viável. [1] A eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos de 1972 foi realizada em 7 de novembro e levou à vitória do candidato republicano, Richard Nixon, sobre o candidato democrata, George McGovern, por um deslizamento de terra. [1] A vitória de Roosevelt não é de forma alguma a única eleição presidencial desequilibrada. [1]

A eleição presidencial mais desigual da história dos EUA foi a vitória do democrata Franklin Delano Roosevelt em 1936 contra o republicano Alfred M. Landon. [1] Em 1936, o presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt obteve uma vitória eleitoral esmagadora sobre o desafiante republicano Alfred M. "Alf" Landon. [1]

Certamente o fez em 1936, quando a Liberty Digest previu uma vitória esmagadora de Alf Landon sobre Franklin D. Roosevelt. [1] Milhões de eleitores católicos ajudaram a trazer a Roosevelt sua vitória esmagadora em 1936. [1] A vitória esmagadora de Nixon empatou com 60,8 por cento do voto popular de FDR em 1936 para o segundo maior voto popular na história americana. [1]

Em 3 de novembro de 1936, em uma vitória esmagadora, o presidente em exercício Franklin D. Roosevelt foi reeleito para o cargo de presidente dos EUA após derrotar o candidato republicano, Alf Landon. [1] A derrota esmagadora pelo presidente democrata Franklin D. Roosevelt de seu adversário republicano Alfred M. Landon na eleição presidencial de 1936 foi um divisor de águas na política americana. [1] A eleição presidencial de 1936 colocou Alfred Landon, o governador republicano do Kansas, contra o presidente em exercício, Franklin D. Roosevelt. [1]

A eleição presidencial de 1936 entre Franklin D. Roosevelt e Alfred Landon, do Kansas, foi a eleição presidencial mais desigual da história dos EUA em termos de votos eleitorais. [1]

Uma das histórias mais estranhas da eleição presidencial de 1936 foi a infame Literary Digest "Poll That Changed Polling". [3] Em dezembro de 1936, o Dr. George Gallup - fundador e então diretor do Instituto Americano de Opinião Pública, o precursor da pesquisa Gallup - perguntou a uma amostra nacional de americanos: "Você acha que o Partido Republicano está morto? " Felizmente para o Partido Republicano, apenas 27% pensaram que sim, embora, em uma pergunta posterior, apenas 31% acreditassem que venceria as próximas eleições presidenciais. [1] No dia da eleição, 3 de novembro de 1936, ele foi eleito de volta ao cargo em 1936 pela maior maioria popular conseguida por qualquer candidato presidencial até então. [1] Quando os republicanos começaram a ganhar nas eleições de setembro de 1936 no Maine, os membros do partido começaram a divulgar a frase em antecipação à vitória presidencial contra o presidente Franklin Roosevelt naquele novembro. [1] O presidente democrata Lyndon Johnson ganhou 61,05 por cento do voto popular na eleição presidencial de 1964, com uma margem de vitória sobre o republicano Barry Goldwater de 22,58 por cento. [1] O presidente republicano Ronald Reagan ganhou 58,77 por cento do voto popular na eleição presidencial de 1984, com uma margem de vitória sobre o democrata Walter Mondale de 18,21 por cento. [1] O presidente republicano em exercício Richard M. Nixon obteve 60,67 por cento do voto popular nas eleições presidenciais de 1972, com uma margem de vitória sobre o democrata George McGovern de 23,15 por cento. [1] O republicano Warren G. Harding obteve 60,32 por cento dos votos populares nas eleições presidenciais de 1920, com uma margem de vitória sobre o democrata James M. Cox de 26,17 por cento. [1]

A eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos da América, realizada em 6 de novembro de 1984, levou a uma importante vitória do candidato presidencial republicano Ronald Reagan. [1]

Na eleição presidencial de 1932, Roosevelt derrotou o presidente republicano Herbert Hoover em uma vitória esmagadora para ganhar a presidência. Roosevelt assumiu o cargo enquanto nos Estados Unidos estava no meio da pior crise econômica de sua história. [1] Não foi surpresa, portanto, que Roosevelt conseguiu derrotar o candidato do Partido Democrata, Alton Parker, em uma vitória esmagadora nas eleições presidenciais de 1904, quando ele assumiu o cargo por um mandato completo por seu próprio direito. [1] Uma eleição presidencial esmagadora, em outras palavras, pode nem sempre resultar em uma margem igualmente ampla no voto popular, porque muitos estados dos EUA concedem votos eleitorais com base no qual o vencedor leva tudo para o candidato que ganha o voto popular em seu estado . [1] Roosevelt venceu todos, exceto dois estados e 8 votos eleitorais a caminho da vitória dos maiores deslizamentos de terra na história da eleição presidencial. [1]

A eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos de 1936 foi a eleição presidencial mais desigual da história dos Estados Unidos em termos de votos eleitorais. [1] Eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos de 1936, eleição presidencial americana realizada em 3 de novembro de 1936, na qual o presidente democrata. [1] Na eleição presidencial de 1936, a base eleitoral do Partido Democrata baseava-se amplamente no apoio do Sul "Solid", cidades do norte, imigrantes, afro-americanos, grupos religiosos étnicos e não protestantes, mulheres, trabalhadores e organizações trabalho. [1] A afirmação enfática do New Deal pelo eleitorado nas Eleições Presidenciais de 1936, como demonstrado pela avalanche de entusiasmo dos eleitores na área metropolitana de Nova York, foi emblemática do surgimento de um novo bloco eleitoral democrata. [1] Eleição presidencial de 1936 Landon atacou a administração do New Deal, enquanto apoiava seus objetivos. [1]… derrotar Alf Landon nas eleições presidenciais dos EUA de 1936, apesar das contraprevisões de outras pesquisas da época. [1] Os resultados da eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos de 1936 são fornecidos na tabela. [1]

A eleição de 1936 A Grande Depressão continuou durante o primeiro mandato de Roosevelt. [1] Para se tornar o maior recordista dos últimos tempos, o Sr. Nixon precisa terminar com mais de 61,1 por cento dos votos marcados pelo presidente Johnson sobre o senador Goldwater em 1964 e a vitória do presidente Roosevelt de 60,8 em 1936. [1] ultrapassar a vitória de Roosevelt foi Ronald Reagan na eleição de 1984, quando havia mais 7 votos eleitorais disponíveis para contestar. [1] Não existe uma definição legal ou constitucional do que é uma eleição esmagadora, ou quão ampla deve ser a margem de vitória eleitoral para que um candidato ganhe em uma vitória esmagadora. [1] Qual é o tamanho de uma "vitória retumbante?" Existe uma certa margem de vitória que se qualifica como uma eleição esmagadora? Quantos votos eleitorais você tem que ganhar para conseguir um deslizamento de terra? Acontece que não há consenso sobre as especificações de uma definição de deslizamento de terra. [1] Os fatos do caso, como outros apresentaram - que Trump recebeu uma proporção menor do voto popular, ganhou o voto eleitoral e a eleição, mas ganhou o voto eleitoral em um número inferior ao de muitos presidentes anteriores - minam o julgamento de que isso é uma vitória esmagadora. [1] A eleição terminou com uma vitória esmagadora para Johnson que, por uma margem surpreendente de 22,58% no voto popular, agora se tornou o presidente dos EUA por um mandato completo. [1]

A eleição de 1804 foi uma vitória esmagadora do titular Thomas Jefferson e do candidato a vice-presidente George Clinton (republicanos) sobre os candidatos federalistas Charles C. Pinckney e Rufus King. [1] Smith é creditado por atrair milhões de eleitores étnicos urbanos para as urnas e para o Partido Democrata, mas ele perdeu a eleição, dando a Herbert Hoover uma vitória esmagadora. [1] Roosevelt uniu todas as alas de seu partido, evitou questões culturais divisionistas, enquanto Hoover venceu a última eleição por uma margem de vitória esmagadora de 17,4%, Roosevelt venceu esta eleição por 17,7%. [1] Uma vitória esmagadora na política é qualquer eleição em que o vencedor vence por uma margem esmagadora. [1]

Usando a definição padrão de uma vitória esmagadora na política presidencial, quando um candidato ganha pelo menos 375 votos eleitorais, aqui está uma lista de disputas presidenciais que estavam entre as mais desequilibradas da história americana. [1]

Uma leitura obrigatória para estudantes de política americana. "--Davis Houck, Florida State University" Votação deliberada de Mary Stuckey: FDR e a campanha presidencial de 1936 demonstra que as raízes de muitas práticas comuns que definem as campanhas presidenciais e a 'presidência retórica' pode ser rastreada até a campanha inovadora de Franklin Roosevelt em 1936. [1] Mais notavelmente, Burke conversou com o presidente na Casa Branca em agosto de 1936 sobre como lidar com os ataques violentos que outro padre católico, Charles Coughlin, estava fazendo contra Roosevelt durante a campanha presidencial de 1936. [1] Organizações como a Aliança Nacional de Católicos Boêmios, a Aliança Católica Romana da Lituânia, a Igreja Católica Nacional Polonesa e a Católica Eslovaca Sokol expressaram apoio público a Roosevelt e ao New Deal durante a campanha presidencial de 1936. [1]

A campanha presidencial de 1936 concentrou-se na classe de uma forma incomum para a política americana. [1] Eu recomendo este livro a todos os estudantes da presidência americana. "--Martin J. Medhurst, Baylor University" Mary Stuckey's Voting Deliberatives oferece uma análise nova e inovadora da retórica e organização da campanha de FDR que torna claro o significado histórico e saliência contemporânea da campanha presidencial de 1936. [1]

The United States presidential election of 1936 was the thirty-eighth quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936. [4] Maine once held a similar political record, voting from 1856 through 1960 for the Republican candidate in every presidential election but one, when in 1912, the state gave Democrat Woodrow Wilson a plurality with 39.43% of the vote. [4] Who will win the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and why? Which party: Democrat or Republican? Which nominees are the most likely to win thei. [1] From 1856 through 1960, Vermont gave the state’s electoral votes to the Republican Party nominee in every presidential election. [4] One generally agreed upon definition of an Electoral College landslide is a presidential election in which the winning candidate secures at least 375 or 70 percent of the electoral votes. [1] Taking place every four years, presidential campaigns and elections have evolved into a series of fiercely fought, and sometimes controversial, contests, now played out in the 24-hour news cycle.The stories behind each election--some ending in landslide victories, others decided by the narrowest of margins--provide a roadmap to the events of U.S. history. [1] Considering Republicans had an unstoppable winning streak of landslide presidential elections in 1980, 1984, and 1988, why did they never take. [1] Republicans won five out of the six Presidential elections from 1968 through 1988. [1] FDR won all but two states, and went on to win two more presidential elections. [1] Roosevelt was not rejected as Hoover had been - indeed he went on to win the next two presidential elections. [1] Roosevelt received 60.8 percent of the popular vote and the plurality (11,072,350) was the largest in presidential election history. [1] "It was not a scientific poll," says Allan Lichtman, a distinguished history professor at American University who has correctly predicted every U.S. presidential election since 1984, including this year’s. [1] In one of the most crushing Presidential election victories in U.S. history, Lyndon Baines Johnson, who had been serving as the President of U.S. since the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, defeated the Republican candidate, Barry Goldwater, in the elections of 1964. [1] The 1832 American Presidential election was unique, in that it was the first election in U.S. history where Presidential candidates were nominated by national nominating conventions. [1] With a margin of 23.15%, this is the 4th largest margin of victory in U.S. Presidential election history. [1] The 'Intra-War Era', including the Roaring Twenties and the worst of the Great Depression, saw 5 of the 10 largest margins of victory ever in U.S. Presidential Elections. [1]

By the 1936 election, therefore, most business leaders were firmly committed to a Republican victory and provided up to 80 percent of the $8.8 million that Republicans spent on the campaign. [1]

For the 1936 election, the Literary Digest prediction was that Landon would get 57% of the vote against Roosevelt's 43% (these are the statistics that the poll measured). [1] New Deal Coalition : A coalition of many diverse groups of voters and interest groups that emerged during the 1932 election and solidified during the 1936 election in support of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. [1] Roosevelt's con- duct of the 1936 election is a particularly good way to access these elements because it stands at the intersection of differing understandings of campaigning and American politics. [1]

Porque? Prior to the 1936 election, the phrase, "As Maine goes, so goes the nation" reflected Maine’s status as a predictor of successful presidential contenders. [1] In one of the great controversies in modern politics (and TV news coverage), the TV networks called the presidential race for Al Gore, then George Bush, and then for no candidate after exit polls indicated Gore had won Florida--and the 2000 presidential election. [1] This prestigious national magazine had conducted straw polls of its readers in six previous presidential elections and had correctly predicted the outcome every time. [1] The Literary Digest, an influential weekly magazine of the time, had begun political polling and had correctly predicted the outcome of the previous five presidential elections. [1] The Literary Digest used national straw polls in 1920, 1924, 1928 and 1932, and it guessed the winner of each presidential election. [1] The first Democrat has entered the 2020 presidential election in the hopes of challenging President Donald Trump. [1] It will be the "57th quadrennial presidential election, in which presidential electors, who will elect the President and Vice President of the United States on December 17, 2012"(2012 Presidential"). [1] Roosevelt defeated the Republican candidate Herbert Hoover by a margin of 17.76% in the 1932 Presidential Elections. [1] Though Republican candidates would prevail in seven of the next 15 presidential elections, from 1940 to 1996, between the Roosevelt era and 1995 the GOP controlled both houses of Congress only during 1953-55. [1]

"If the people command me to continue in this office and in this war," he said, "I have as little right to withdraw as the soldier has to leave his post in the line." 6 Roosevelt won his fourth presidential election by more than 3 ½ million votes over his opponent, Thomas E. Dewey. [1] A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. [1] The U.S. Presidential election of 1920 was influenced by the aftermath of World War I. The country was facing one of its most difficult times, and there was utter chaos within the country. [1] The United States presidential election of 1932 took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. [1]

Ronald Reagan's 1984 presidential victory is considered to be a landslide. [1] Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat) defeated Herbert Hoover (Republican) in a landslide victory brought on by the onset of the Great Depression. [1] In 1932, amid the Great Depression, Roosevelt had won a landslide victory over incumbent Herbert Hoover, ending 12 years of Republican rule. [1] Reagan won a landslide victory, and Republicans also gained control of the Senate for the first time in twenty-five years. [1]

The pollsters at the magazine simply totaled the cards for each candidate and then declared a landslide victory for Landon (57%) to defeat Roosevelt (43%), the one-term incumbent president. [1] This was the primary cause that was said to have led to the landslide victory of Hoover's opponent, the Democrat candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt. [1] Gallup's group not only predicted a landslide victory for Roosevelt, but also correctly predicted what the Literary Digest poll would show, based on sampling of Digest readers. [1] Roosevelt and Garner did indeed defeat Herbert Hoover and Charles Curtis in a landslide victory. [1] Herbert Hoover (Republican) defeated Al Smith (Democrat) in a landslide victory. [1] Hoover's fame and his pledge to continue to pro-business policies of Harding and Coolidge that had catapulted the country into so much prosperity resulted in a landslide victory again for the Republicans, with Hoover outclassing Smith 444-87 (and even claiming Smith's home state of New York.) [1] This quilt commemorates the President's landslide victory over his opponent, Republican Alfred M. Landon of Kansas. [1] President Nixon has won four more years in the White House with a landslide victory which by late tonight was being compared with George Washington's. [1] His landslide victory that year signified the people's verdict on the New Deal. [1] Political journalists have offered their own suggested guidelines for determining a landslide victory over the years. [1]

Roosevelt won the 1936 election in a landslide and was feeling a bit emboldened. [1]


In one of the most crushing Presidential election victories in U.S. history, Lyndon Baines Johnson, who had been serving as the President of U.S.A. since the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, defeated the Republican candidate, Barry Goldwater, in the elections of 1964. [5]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner were re-nominated without opposition, with the backing of party leaders, Landon defeated progressive Senator William Borah at the 1936 Republican National Convention to win his party's presidential nomination. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL On Nov. 3, 1936, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was re-elected in a landslide over his Republican challenger, Kansas Governor Alfred M. "Alf" Landon. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL The mother of all botched political polls was a 1936 Literary Digest straw poll survey that said GOP challenger Alf Landon would win in a landslide over the incumbent, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, with 57 percent of the vote. [1] In 1936, the American weekly Literary Digest confidently predicted that Republican Alf Landon would defeat the Democratic incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt in a landslide. [1]

Roosevelt was up for re- election in 1936 and faced Republican Alf Landon. [1] The 1936 vote was what many students of politics describe as "a transforming election" that made the Democratic Party the majority party in the nation for many elections to come. [1] Father Charles Coughlin, a former FDR supporter who had become an outspoken critic of the President during the 1936 campaign, actively campaigned against him in the months before the election. [1] Democrats emerged from the election of 1936 with 76 seats to just 16 for the Republicans. [1] That was a time when Republicans recovered from their 1936 devastating loss and recorded substantial gains in Congress in the aftermath of the 1938 midterm election. [1] Despite the 1936 loss in congressional elections and historically low numbers of Republican representatives and senators, they remained a potent force in Congress. [1] Of the elections listed, we’d have to go with Franklin Roosevelt’s win in 1936. [1]

Franklin Roosevelt, Dem. defeats Alf Landon, Rep. 24.26% 1936 At the Republican convention that occurred in Cleveland, Landon was the first runner for the presidential nomination. [1] Franklin Roosevelt, Dem. defeats Alf Landon, Rep. 24.26% 1936 By then it had became clear that Landon's only hope of victory was if third parties could attract votes away from the president. [1] President Franklin Roosevelt, following his overwhelming victory in 1936, took this as a mandate to oppose conservative Democratic Senators in the 1938 primaries and to reorganize the Supreme Court to get decisions more to his liking. [1]

Catholics and the 1936 Roosevelt Victory Catholics and Politics American Catholic History Classroom You are using an outdated browser. [1] National opinion polls were relatively new in 1936, but George Gallop and Elmo Roper both forecast a substantial victory for Roosevelt. [1]

Scholars and pundits alike consider Franklin D. Roosevelt an eloquent speaker, a master of radio, a public communicator par excellence and understand these traits as fundamental to his political success.6 Focusing on Roosevelt's communicative skill, however, can lead us to overlook his dedication to organizational politics.7 His 1936 campaign used a variety of mobilization techniques that are now commonplace but which were, for their time, revolutionary. [1] The Political Graveyard: Election of 1936 Questions? Return to The Political Graveyard main page. [1] Most political scientists and historians agree that the elections of 1932, 1934, and 1936 saw a "political realignment," that is, an emergence of a new and powerful coalition of voters that would come to shape the outcome of subsequent elections at least until the late 1960s. [1] In its August 22, 1936 issue, the Litereary Digest announced: Once again, asking more than ten million voters -- one out of four, representing every county in the United States -- to settle November's election in October. [1] On election day, November 3, 1936, "a crowd estimated by the police at "a million’ persons kept Times Square and the theater district in continual uproar last night as news of the President’s reelection flashed from The Times tower" (" Election Crowd in a Merry Mood." [1] Election of 1936 - Dictionary definition of Election of 1936. [1]

The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression that ruined the promises of incumbent President, the Democratic nomination went to the well-known governor of the most populous state, New Yorks Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had been reelected governor in a landslide in 1930. [1] Roosevelt won in a landslide, carrying 46 of the 48 states and bringing in many additional Democratic members of Congress, after Lyndon B. Johnson ’s 61.1 percent share of the popular vote in 1964, Roosevelt’s 60.8 percent is the second-largest percentage in U.S. history since the nearly unopposed election of James Monroe in 1820, and his 98.5% of the electoral vote is the highest in two-party competition. [1] The Democrat candidate, Walter Mondale, was defeated in this election by a margin of 18.21%, a major landslide in U.S. election history. [1] Under that scenario a landslide would occur when the winning candidate in a two-way election receives 58 percent of the vote, leaving his opponent with 42 percent. [1] One generally agreed upon measure of a landslide election is when the winning candidate beats his opponent or opponents by at least 15 percentage points in a popular vote count. [1] The online political news source Politico has defined a landslide election as being on in which the winning candidate beats his opponent by at least 10 percentage points, for example. [1]

The election was fought in the shadow of World War II in Europe, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democratic candidate, broke with tradition and ran for a third term, which became a major issue. [1] On election eve, from his 12-by-12-foot study, Roosevelt gave a nonpartisan nationwide radio address, urging only that his fellow Americans vote for the candidate of their choice. [1] On November 8, 1932, Roosevelt cast his vote in the little Town Hall of Hyde Park, New York, and chatted with some of the townspeople, as was his custom, before continuing on to the Democratic Headquarters in New York City to learn the outcome of the election. [1] In mid-1938, Roosevelt embarked on a campaign to deprive a number of anti-New Deal congressional Democrats of renomination in local Democratic primary elections. [1] The election saw the consolidation of the New Deal coalition while the Democrats lost some of their traditional allies in big business, they were replaced by groups such as organized labor and African Americans, the latter of whom voted Democratic for the first time since the Civil War. [4] Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the uncontested 1820 election, the sweeping victory consolidated the New Deal Coalition in control of the Fifth Party System. [1] Enough New Yorkers voted for Birney to throw 36 electoral votes and the election to Polk, who won the electoral college, 170-105, and a slim popular victory. [1] He’d just led the Allies to victory in Europe, and "politicians and commentators confidently predicted that he would lead the Conservatives to victory at the forthcoming general election," writes Paul Addison, author of Churchill: The Unexpected Hero, for BBC. The Literary Digest, which had correctly predicted the winner of the last 5 elections, announced in its October 31 issue that Landon would be the winner with 370 electoral votes. [1] A more detailed study in 1988 showed that both the initial sample and non-response bias were contributing factors, and that the error due to the initial sample taken alone would not have been sufficient to predict the Landon victory, this mistake by the Literary Digest proved to be devastating to the magazine's credibility and it ceased publishing within a few months of the election. [1]

The term became popular in the 1800s to define a "resounding victory one in which the opposition is buried" in an election, according to the late New York Times political writer William Safire in his Safire's Political Dictionary. [1] In terms of the popular vote, it was the third biggest victory since the election of 1820, which was not seriously contested. [1] The outcome of this year's election was not something I would have expected--an Electoral College victory for Trump despite a popular vote majority for Clinton. [1] "All of the polls were pointing to a Dewey victory, but they stopped polling a few weeks before the election," Lichtman says. [1] He’d just led the Allies to victory in Europe, and "politicians and commentators confidently predicted that he would lead the Conservatives to victory at the forthcoming general election," writes Paul Addison, author of Churchill: The Unexpected Hero, for BBC. [1]

The nation’s most respected survey on the presidential question, the Literary Digest poll, which had accurately predicted the previous five elections, announced that the Republican candidate, Alf Landon, would win. [1] It is possible to win the popular vote and lose the presidential race, as happened in the 2000 and 2016 elections because of the way electoral votes are distributed by states. [1] The 1796 election, which took place against a background of increasingly harsh partisanship between Federalists and Republicans, was the first contested presidential race. [1] McGovern ran an anti-war campaign that was well appreciated by many, though his 'outsider' status, and the scandal surrounding his Vice Presidential Democrat nominee, Thomas Eagleton, contributed to his failure in winning the election. [1] In the 1920 elections, the Democrats nominated a newspaper publisher, Governor James M. Cox, as their Presidential candidate, while the Republicans chose another newspaper publisher, Senator Warren G. Harding, to act as their own. [1] The Democratic Party nominated Roosevelt as its presidential candidate for the 1932 election. [1]

Roosevelt also won the highest share of the popular vote since 1820, though Lyndon B. Johnson would later win a slightly higher share of the popular vote in the 1964 election. [4] Straw polls were actually started in 1824 in Pennsylvania, when a Harrisburg newspaper forecast that Andrew Jackson would win the popular vote in the general election by a wide margin. (Jackson did, but lost the presidency in the House, since he didn’t have a majority of electoral votes.) [1] That same year, George Gallup, an advertising executive who had begun a scientific poll, predicted that Roosevelt would win the election, based on a quota sample of 50,000 people. [4] Gallup's poll not only predicted that Roosevelt would win the election - based on a sample of 50,000 people - he also predicted that the error in the Literary Digest results. [1]

The actual results of the election were 62% for Roosevelt against 38% for Landon (these were the parameters the poll was trying to measure). [1] In the actual election, Roosevelt took 62% of the popular vote against 38% for Landon. [1] In this election, Franklin Delano Roosevelt also known as FDR campaigned on his New Deal programs against the Kansas Governor Alf Landon. [1] The depressed state of the U.S. economy determined the 1932 election contest between the incumbent, Herbert Hoover, and the challenger, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. [1] Four years ago, our figures gave the State to Mr. Roosevelt, and Mr. Hoover carried it on Election day. [1]

Lemke, who lacked the charisma and national stature of the other potential candidates, fared poorly in the election, barely managing two percent of the vote, and the party was dissolved the following year. [4] Electoral College (United States) - Citizens of the United States vote in each state at a general election to choose a slate of electors pledged to vote for a partys candidate. [1] The election, the first waged following the "Citizens United" Supreme Court decision that allowed for increased political contributions, cost more than $2.6 billion, with the two major party candidates spending close to $1.12 billion that cycle. [1] Roosevelts trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. [1] She also helped president Franklin D. Roosevelt during his election. [1] The Election of 1952 Truman decided not to run for re-election in 1952 (although he could have legally run again, having become President when Roosevelt died and then served only one full term). [1] Following the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, the late President's running mate in the election of 1900, Theodore Roosevelt, then aged 42, was appointed as the President. [1]

Incorrect Republicans gained seven seats in the Senate and eighty in the House in the congressional elections. (True Answer )Correct Roosevelt was unable to gain support for his plan to nationalize banking and agriculture. [1] In this election Republican James Monroe won the presidency with 183 electoral votes, carrying every state except Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware. [1] On election day, FDR won 55 percent of the popular vote and the electoral votes of thirty-eight states. [1] Van Buren won the election with 764,198 popular votes, only 50.9 percent of the total, and 170 electoral votes. [1]

It was the first such election since 1888, when Benjamin Harris became president after winning more electoral votes but losing the popular vote to Grover Cleveland. [1] This race, marred by negative campaigning and corruption, ended in the election of the first Democratic president since 1856. [1]

Although the Republicans in the same election had won a decisive majority of 65 to 39 in the House, election of the president fell to the outgoing House, which had a Federalist majority. [1] Having narrowly won the gubernatorial election in 1932, he was the only Republican governor in the nation to win reelection in 1934, a fact that immediately propelled him into the race for the Republican nomination for the presidency. [1]

In the 2016 election, Donald Trump won the Electoral College tally by taking traditionally Democratic states like Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. [1] FDR won the election in a walk, amassing huge majorities in the popular vote and in the Electoral College. [1] Sources: Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives and Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, 4th ed. (2001). [1] The 2000 election was the fourth election in U.S. history in which the winner of the electoral votes did not carry the popular vote. [1] The election ended in one the largest political scandals in U.S. history, being the Watergate break-in, and cover-up, by President Richard Nixon. [1]

If anything, the election was a strong rejection of President Wilson and an endorsement of the Republican candidate’s call for a "return to normalcy." [1] In many respects, Willkie was just the type of liberal Republican that FDR wanted to lure into the Democratic PartyDuring the initial weeks of the election season, FDR looked strong even though he campaigned only from the White House. [1] When Republicans and Democrats faced off for the 1938 midterm elections, it had been a decade since Republicans had done well in congressional elections. [1]

Another state that had been reliably Republican for a very long time before 1936 was Pennsylvania, which Roosevelt was the first Democrat to carry since "favorite son" James Buchanan won Pennsylvania in 1856. [4] Polling results vary depending on what sample is used -- which is why in 1936, pollsters predicted Franklin Roosevelt would lose in a landslide. [1] 'Passable' turnouts associated with landslides are, FDR's 1936 LBJ T Roosevelt 1904 Eisenhower 1956 & 1952. [1]

Along with the landslide vote for Roosevelt came winning votes the country over for Democratic congress candidates who will control congress for the president. [1] They lost in a landslide, winning just Maine and Vermont against the Democratic ticket of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during World War II, Knox again was an advocate of preparedness. [1]

The man given the unenviable task of trying to unseat President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 was Alfred Mossman Landon, the forty-eight year old Republican governor of Kansas. [1] From among several governors and senators running in the 1936 primaries, the Republicans finally chose Kansas Governor Alfred "Alf" Landon as their presidential candidate. [1] In 1936, Landon sought the Republican presidential nominee opposing the re-election of FDR. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936, Knox was mentioned by name in Adolf Hitlers speech of December 11,1941, in which Hitler asked for a German declaration of war against the United States. [1]

Interestingly, 1936 was also the first year the Gallup company conducted its famous presidential polls. [1] "Editors, Whistle Stops, and Elephants: the Presidential Campaign of 1936 in Indiana." [4]

Roosevelt`s campaign manager James A. Farley predicted to Roosevelt that in the 1936 election his boss would win every state except Vermont and Maine, which proved correct. [1] One famous example was the Literary Digest's poll for the 1936 election between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Alf Landon. [1] Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt won the 1936 election with 523 electoral votes, while his opponent Alfred M. Landon received 8. [1] President Roosevelt won the 1936 election easily, with 63 percent of the vote, and the Literary Digest was out of business the following year. [1] Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the 1936 election with nearly 61 percent of the vote, capturing forty-six of the forty- eight states, losing only in Maine and Vermont. [1] Polls made during 1934 and 1935 suggested Long could have won between six and seven million votes, or approximately fifteen percent of the actual number cast in the 1936 election. [4]

After being elevated to the presidency by John F. Kenndy's assassination in 1963, Johnson won election in his own right with over 61 percent of the popular vote. [1] No major-party candidate has won so few electoral votes since this election. [4] Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the largely uncontested 1820 election. [4] Roosevelt won the election by a huge landslide, securing 60.8% of the popular vote to Landon’s 36.5%. [1]

There is and always has been a tension between inclusion and efficiency, and there has always been a tendency among those who are included to generalize their interests to that of the "public interest."4 This election is interesting partly because those problems and potential solutions were very much on the minds of those involved in the Roosevelt campaign. [1] When the election results were in, Democrats had lost six Senate seats and 71 House seats in what former Roosevelt advisor Raymond Moley called "a comeback of astounding proportions." [1] The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. [1] Another interesting fact about this election was that for the first time in the country’s history, a major party had a female on its ticket, as Mondale and the Democrats had decided to select Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate. [1] The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. [1] Dwight Eisenhower (Republican) defeated Adlai Stevenson (Democrat), in a rematch of the 1952 election. [1] Two sets of election returns existed-one from the Democrats, one from the Republicans. [1]

His opponent in the election was Republican businessman Wendell Wilkie, who emphasized that Roosevelt's policies hadn't dragged the country out of the Great Depression and that war loomed on the horizon. [1] The significance of the 1800 election lay in the fact that it entailed the first peaceful transfer of power between parties under the U.S. Constitution: Republican Thomas Jefferson succeeded Federalist John Adams. [1] The Election of 1944 With World War II still raging, Roosevelt ran again in 1944, campaigning on the strength of America's turning back the tide of the war in both Europe and the Pacific. (After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the U.S. had entered the war and fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan. [1] In the late afternoon on Election Day, throngs of Roosevelt supporters congregated in Times Square to watch as the incoming returns were displayed on The Times Building. [1] In comparing our ballot this year with that of 1932, we find that in many cities in Pennsylvania our figures showed a much higher trend toward Mr. Roosevelt than was justified by the election figures on Election day in 1932. [1]

This result threw the election into the House of Representatives, where each state had one vote, to be decided by the majority of its delegation. [1] With the election of a sectional northern candidate, the Deep South seceded from the Union, followed within a few months by several states of the Upper South. [1] This election remains the last time a Democratic candidate ever carried Tulsa County, Oklahoma, Douglas County, Nevada, Josephine County, Oregon, Ada County, Idaho, Hughes County, South Dakota and over thirty smaller counties in Nebraska and Kansas. [4] At that time, Democrats entirely dominated politics in Texas, thus the Democratic primary election was the real election, with the general election being a formality. [1]

By the time of the election campaign, Truman was deeply unpopular, having clashed with leaders of Congress and failed to live up to many people's expectations, following in the footsteps of the hugely popular FDR. Dewey's campaign was lackluster Truman's was not. [1]

The election was the first held under the Twelfth Amendment, which separated electoral college balloting for president and vice president. [1] In this historic election, Barack Obama became the first African-American to become president. [1]

The Literary Digest, which had correctly predicted the winner of the last 5 elections, announced in its October 31 issue that Landon would be the winner with 370 electoral votes. [4] This election is notable for The Literary Digest poll, which was based on ten million questionnaires mailed to readers and potential readers 2.3 million were returned. [4]

FONTES SELECIONADAS RANKED(20 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Por que falamos sobre isso

O que aprendemos com isso? Um quadro de amostra incorreto pode destruir um estudo, independentemente do tamanho da amostra. Os pesquisadores entrevistaram mais de 2 milhões de pessoas (a pesquisa política típica de hoje pergunta entre 500 e 1000 entrevistados), mas errou tanto quanto possível.

Além disso, o tamanho da amostra não é tudo. Quando você atinge um certo número de entrevistados (normalmente cerca de 500), as respostas adicionais começam a gerar retornos decrescentes.

Responda às principais perguntas de forma rápida e fácil com os painéis de pesquisa - baixe o e-book de gerenciamento do painel


Election of 1936: A Democratic Landslide - History

President Roosevelt was overwhelmingly re-elected in the election of 1936. He carried every state but Maine and Vermont, easily defeating the Republican candidate Governor Alf Landon of Kansas. Democrats won an equally lopsided victory in the congressional races: 331 to 89 seats in the House and 76 to 16 seats in the Senate.

In his second inaugural address in early 1937, Franklin Roosevelt promised to press for new social legislation. "I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished," he told the country. Yet instead of pursuing new reforms, he allowed his second term to bog-down in political squabbles. He wasted his energies on an ill-conceived battle with the Supreme Court and an abortive effort to purge the Democratic Party.

On "Black Monday," May 27, 1935, the Supreme Court struck down a basic part of Roosevelt's program of recovery and reform. A kosher chicken dealer sued the government, charging that the NRA was unconstitutional. In its famous "dead chicken" decision, Schechter v. the U.S. , the court agreed. The case affirmed that Congress had delegated excessive authority to the president and had improperly involved the federal government in regulating interstate commerce. Complained Roosevelt, "We have been relegated to the horse-and-buggy definition of interstate commerce."

In June 1936, the court ruled the Agricultural Adjustment Act--another of the measures enacted during the first 100 days--unconstitutional. Then six months later, the high court declared a New York state minimum wage law invalid. Roosevelt was aghast. The court, he feared, had established a "'no-man's land' where no government, state or federal, can function."

Roosevelt feared that every New Deal reform, such as the prohibition on child labor or regulation of wages and hours, was at risk. In 1936, his supporters in Congress responded by introducing over a hundred bills to curb the judiciary's power. After his landslide re-election in 1936, the president proposed a controversial "court-packing scheme." The plan proposed to reorganize the Supreme Court. Roosevelt sought to make his opponents on the Supreme Court resign so that he could replace them with justices more sympathetic to his policies. To accomplish this, he announced a plan to add one new member to the Supreme Court for every judge who had reached the age of 70 without retiring (six justices were over 70). To offer a carrot with the stick, Roosevelt also outlined a generous new pension program for retiring federal judges.

The court-packing scheme was a political disaster. Conservatives and liberals alike denounced Roosevelt for attacking the separation of powers, and critics accused him of trying to become a dictator. Fortunately, the Court itself ended the crisis by shifting ground. In two separate cases, the Court upheld the Wagner Act and approved a Washington state minimum wage law, furnishing proof that it had softened its opposition to the New Deal.

Yet Roosevelt remained too obsessed with the battle to realize he had won the war. He lobbied for the court-packing bill for several months, squandering his strength on a struggle that had long since become a political embarrassment. In the end, the only part of the president's plan to gain congressional approval was the pension program. Once it passed, Justice Willis Van Devanter, the most obstinate New Deal opponent on the Court, resigned. By 1941 Roosevelt had named five justices to the Supreme Court. Few legacies of the president's leadership proved more important. The new "Roosevelt Court" significantly expanded the government's role in the economy and in civil liberties.


The 1936 presidential election proved a decisive battle, not only in shaping the nation’s political future but for the future of opinion polling. o Literary Digest, the venerable magazine founded in 1890, had correctly predicted the outcomes of the 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, and 1932 elections by conducting polls. These polls were a lucrative venture for the magazine: readers liked them newspapers played them up and each “ballot” included a subscription blank. The 1936 postal card poll claimed to have asked one fourth of the nation’s voters which candidate they intended to vote for. No Resumo Literário's October 31 issue, based on more than 2,000,000 returned post cards, it issued its prediction: Republican presidential candidate Alfred Landon would win 57 percent of the popular vote and 370 electoral votes.

Landon, 1,293,669 Roosevelt, 972,897

Final Returns in the Digest’s Poll of Ten Million Voters

Well, the great battle of the ballots in the poll of 10 million voters, scattered throughout the forty-eight states of the Union, is now finished, and in the table below we record the figures received up to the hour of going to press.

These figures are exactly as received from more than one in every five voters polled in our country—they are neither weighted, adjusted, nor interpreted.

Never before in an experience covering more than a quarter of a century in taking polls have we received so many different varieties of criticism—praise from many and condemnation from many others—and yet it has been just of the same type that has come to us every time a Poll has been taken in all these years.

A telegram from a newspaper in California asks: "Is it true that Mr. Hearst has purchased The Literary Digest?“ A telephone message only the day before these lines were written: ”Has the Republican National Committee purchased The Literary Digest?“ And all types and varieties, including: ”Have the Jews purchased The Literary Digest?" "ls the Pope of Rome a stockholder of The Literary Digest?" And so it goes—all equally absurd and amusing. We could add more to this list, and yet all of these questions in recent days are but repetitions of what we have been experiencing all own the years from the very first Poll.

Problema—Now, are the figures in this poll correct? In answer to this question we will simply refer to a telegram we sent to a young man in Massachusetts the other day answer to his challenge to us to wager 100,000 on the accuracy of our Poll. We wired him as follows:

For nearly a quarter century, we have been taking Polls of the voters in the forty-eight States, and especially in Presidential years, and we have always merely mailed the ballots, counted and recorded those returned and let the people of the Nation draw their conclusions as to our accuracy. So far, we have been right in every Poll. Will we be right in the current Poll? That, as Mrs. Roosevelt said concerning the President’s reelection, is in the “lap of the gods.”

We never make any claims before election but we respectfully refer you to the opinion of one of the most quoted citizens today, the Hon. James A. Farley, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. This is what Mr. Farley said October 14, 1932:

"Any sane person cannot escape the implication of such a gigantic sampling of popular opinion as is embraced in The Literary Digest straw vote. I consider this conclusive evidence as to the desire of the people of this country for a change in the National Government. The Literary Digest poll is an achievement of no little magnitude. It is a Poll fairly and correctly conducted."

In studying the table of the voters from of the States printed below, please remember that we make no claims at this time for their absolute accuracy. On a similar occasion we felt it important to say:

In a wild year like this, however, many sagacious observers will refuse to bank upon appearances, however convincing. Quanto a The Digest, it draws no conclusions from the results of its vast distribution of twenty million ballots. True to its historic non-partizan policy—or “omni-partizan,” as some editor described it in 1928—we supply our readers with the facts to the best of our ability, and leave them to draw their own conclusions.

We make no claim to infallibility. We did not coin the phrase “uncanny accuracy” which has been so freely-applied to our Polls. We know only too well the limitations of every straw vote, however enormous the sample gathered, however scientific the method. It would be a miracle if every State of the forty-eight behaved on Election day exactly as forecast by the Poll.

We say now about Rhode Island and Massachusetts that our figures indicate in our own judgment too large a percentage for Mr. Landon and too small a percentage for Mr. Roosevelt, and although in 1932 the figures in these two States indicated Mr. Hoover’s carrying both, we announced:

“A study of the returns convinces us that in those States our ballots have somehow failed to come back in adequate quantity from large bodies of Democratic voters.”

Our own opinion was that they would be found in the Roosevelt column, and they were. We will not do the same this year we feel that both States will be found in the Landon column, and we are reaching this conclusion by the same process that lead to the reverse conclusion in 1932.

Pennsylvania is another State which requires special mention. Four years ago, our figures gave the State to Mr. Roosevelt, and Mr. Hoover carried it on Election day. In comparing our ballot this year with that of 1932, we find that in many cities in Pennsylvania our figures showed a much higher trend toward Mr. Roosevelt than was justified by the election figures on Election day in 1932. In examining the very same cities now we discover the reverse trend, and in cities that in 1932 indicated an approximately 60󈞔 percent relationship between Roosevelt and Hoover, we now find 60 percent for Landon and 40 percent for Roosevelt.

That’s the plain language of it. Many people wonder at these great changes in a State like Pennsylvania, and we confess to wonderment ourselves.

On the Pacific Coast, we find California, Oregon, and Washington all vote for Mr. Landon in our Poll, and yet we are told that the Pacific Coast is “aflame” for Mr. Roosevelt.

A State like California is always a difficult State to get an accurate opinion from by the polling method, and we may be far astray, yet every one should remember that in the Gubernatorial campaign a few years ago, we took a Poll of California when it was believed by most of California citizens that Mr. Upton Sinclair would be elected Governor, and the result of our Poll showed that Mr. Sinclair would not be elected Governor and the Poll was correct.

The State of Washington seems to be more favorable to Mr. Landon than either Oregon or California. We cannot in our Poll detect anything that would indicate a reason for this difference.

Seattle—Right here we wish to say that in 1932 our Poll in Seattle gave Mr. Roosevelt 65.43 percent of the vote, and he carried that city by 61.58 percent of the vote. In the current Poll, 1936, Seattle gives Mr. Landon 58.52 percent and Mr. Roosevelt 40.46 percent. Our readers will notice we overestimated Mr. Roosevelt in 1932—are we overestimating Mr. Landon now? We see no reason for supposing so. And the three Pacific Coast States which now show for Mr. Landon and which millions believe will vote for Mr. Roosevelt (they may be right) in 1924, 1928, and 1932 were correctly forecast in The Literary Digest Polls.

In the great Empire State, New York the figures for so large a State are what might be called very close. After looking at the figures for New York in the column at the left, remember that in 1932 we gave Mr. Roosevelt 46.1 percent and Mr. Hoover 43.9 percent, even closer than it is to day. And yet we correctly forecast that Mr. Roosevelt would carry the State.

And so we might go on with many States that are very close, and some not so close, but in which local conditions have much to do with results, not in polls such as our Poll but on Election day.

The Poll represents the most extensive straw ballot in the field—the most experienced in view of its twenty-five years of perfecting—the most unbiased in view of its prestige—a Poll that has always previously been correct.

Even its critics admit its value as an index of popular sentiment. As one of these critics, the Nation, observes:

“Because it indicates both the 1932 and 1936 vote, it offers the raw material for as careful a prognostication as it is possible to make at this time.”

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