A história

Spectar AM-306 - História


espectro

(AM-306: dp. 850; 1. 184'6 ~; b. 33 '; dr. 9'9 "; s. 14,8
k .; cpl. 104; uma. 1 3, 4 40 mm; cl. Admirável)

Specter (AM-306) (ax-Spector) foi estabelecido em 5 de setembro de 1943 por Associated Shipbuilders, Seattle, Wash .; lançado em 15 de fevereiro de 1944; patrocinado por Miss Carol D. Petrie; e comissionado em 30 de agosto de 1944, o tenente J. Chevalier, USNR, no comando.

Specter partiu de Seattle em 16 de setembro a caminho de San Pedro, Califórnia. Ela conduziu o treinamento de shakedown em San Pedro e San Diego de 21 de setembro a 19 de outubro. O caça-minas partiu de San Pedro em 9 de novembro para o Havaí e chegou a Pearl Harbor em 18 de novembro de 1944. Após treinamento em artilharia, guerra anti-submarina e operações de varredura de minas, ele navegou em 22 de janeiro de 1945 para as Ilhas Vulcânicas.

Depois de paradas em Eniwetok e Tinian, Spectre chegou a Iwo Jima em 16 de fevereiro, três dias antes do desembarque e começou as operações de remoção de minas. Ela estava ocupada limpando campos minados, patrulhando e realizando tarefas de escolta até 28 de fevereiro, quando navegou para Saipan. Depois de uma parada em Ulithi de 6 a 19 de março, Spectre partiu para Okinawa. Ao chegar lá, em 25 de março, ela começou as operações de remoção de minas pré-invasão de rotas marítimas e canais. O navio permaneceu na área de Okinawa até 6 de agosto. Durante esse período, ela conduziu patrulhas anti-submarino, varreu minas de Okinawa e Iheya Shima e fez duas varreduras em mar aberto no Mar da China Oriental. Enquanto patrulhava Ie Shima em 25 de maio, ela abateu um avião de combate japonês.

Specter esteve no Golfo de Leyte de 9 a 27 de agosto. Ela partiu para o Japão em 28 de agosto e, após tocar em Buckner Bay, Okinawa, chegou às águas nativas japonesas em 9 de setembro. Durante os três meses seguintes, ela varreu minas em Nagasaki, Sasebo, Bungo Suido e Tsushima. Em 11 de dezembro de 1945, Spectre foi mandado para casa; ela chegou a San Diego em 11 de janeiro de 1946; e foi encaminhado para Orange, Texas, onde foi colocada na reserva, fora de serviço.

O Spectre foi redesignado de AM-306 para MSF-306 em 7 de fevereiro de 1955 enquanto estava na reserva. Ela foi retirada da lista da Marinha em 1º de julho de 1972 e vendida para o México em 11 de abril de 1973. Ela serve naquele país como DM-04 (ID-04).

Spectre recebeu quatro estrelas de batalha pelo serviço prestado na Segunda Guerra Mundial.


ยูเอส ส เป ค เตอร์ (AM-306)

ยูเอส อสุรกาย (AM-306) เป็น ที่ น่า ชื่นชม -classe เรือ กวาด ทุ่นระเบิด สร้าง ขึ้น สำหรับ กองทัพ เรือ สหรัฐฯ ใน ช่วง สงครามโลก ครั้ง ที่ สอง เดิมที เธอ ได้ รับคำ สั่ง ให้ วาง และ เปิด ตัว ใน ฐานะ USS Spector (AM-306) แต่ ถูก เปลี่ยน ชื่อ เป็น Spectre ที่ สะกด ถูก ต้อง ใน เดือน มีนาคม พ.ศ. 2487 เธอ ได้ รับ รางวัล สี่ ดาว รบ สำหรับ การ ให้ บริการ ใน แปซิฟิก ใน ช่วง สงครามโลก ครั้ง ครั้ง ที่ สอง เธอ ถูก ปลด ประจำ การ ใน ปี พ. ศ. 2489 และ ถูก จองจำ ใน ขณะ ที่ เธอ ยัง คง อยู่ ใน กองหนุน Espectro ถูก จัด ประเภท ใหม่ เป็น MSF-306 ใน เดือน กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2498 แต่ ไม่ เคย เปิด ใช้ งาน อีก ครั้ง ใน เดือน เมษายน เมษายน ปี 1973 เธอ ถูก ขาย ให้ กับ กองทัพ เรือ เม็ก ซิ กัน และ เปลี่ยน ชื่อ เป็น BRAÇO DM-04 ใน ปี 1994 เธอ ได้ รับ การ เปลี่ยน ชื่อ BRAÇO ทั่วไป มา นู เอ ล อี Rincón (C52) เธอ ถูก ครอบงำ ใน เดือน กรกฎาคม ปี 2001 แต่ เธอ ชะตา กรรม ไม่ ได้ รายงาน ใน แหล่ง ข้อมูล ทุติย ภูมิ

  • 2 × Cooper Bessemer GSB-8 เครื่องยนต์ ดีเซล 1.710 แรงม้า (1.280 กิโล วัตต์)
  • National Supply Co. เกียร์ ทด เดียว
  • 2 เพลา
  • ปืน DP ขนาด 1 × 3 "/ 50 (76 ม ม.)
  • 2 × แฝด Bofors 40 มิลลิเมตร ปืน
  • ปูน ป้องกัน เรือ ดำ น้ำ 1 × Ouriço
  • 2 × แท ร็ ก การ ชาร์จ ความ ลึก
    (พ.ศ. 2487-2489) (2489–2515) (1973–2001)

ชื่อ แรก ส เป ค เตอร์ , เรือ ถูก วาง ลง บน ที่ 5 กันยายน 1943 โดย ที่ เกี่ยวข้อง โฟโต้ ชอป, ซี แอ ต เติ ล, วอชิงตัน เปิด ตัว เมื่อ วัน วัน ที่ 15 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2487 โดย ได้ รับ การ สนับสนุน จาก มิส แค รอ ล ดี เพท รี และ รับ หน้าที่ เมื่อ เมื่อ วัน ที่ 30 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2487 ร.ท. เจ. เชอ วา ลิ เย ร์ USNR ผู้ บังคับบัญชา อสุรกาย ออก ซี แอ ต เติ เติ ที่ 16 กันยายน เส้นทาง ที่ จะ ไป ซาน เป โดร แคลิฟอร์เนีย เธอ ทำการ ฝึก อบรม แบบ ปอก เปลือก นอก เมือง เมือง ซาน เป โดร และ ซาน ดิ ดิ เอ โก แคลิฟอร์เนีย ตั้งแต่ วัน ที่ 21 กันยายน ถึง 19 ตุลาคม เรือ กวาด ทุ่นระเบิด แล่น เรือ ออก ซาน เป โดร ใน วัน ที่ 9 พฤศจิกายน ฮาวาย และ มา ถึง ที่ อ่าว เพิ ร์ ล ที่ 18 พฤศจิกายน 1944 หลังจาก การ ฝึก อบรม ใน การ การ ยิง ปืน สงคราม เรือ ดำ น้ำ น้ำ และ กวาด ทุ่นระเบิด การ ดำเนิน งาน ของ เธอ แล่น เรือ ต่อ ไป 22 มกราคม 1945 สำหรับ เกาะ ภูเขาไฟ

หลังจาก หยุด ที่ Eniwetok และ Tinian แล้ว Espectro ก็ มา ถึง Iwo Jima ใน วัน ที่ 16 กุมภาพันธ์ สาม วัน ก่อน ที่ จะ ขึ้น ฝั่ง และ เริ่ม ปฏิบัติการ กวาด ทุ่นระเบิด เธอ เป็น เป็น คน ที่ อ่อนไหว หักบัญชี ยุ่ง ลาดตระเวน ลาดตระเวน และ การ ปฏิบัติ หน้าที่ คุ้มกัน จนถึง วัน วัน ที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ เธอ เดินทาง ไป ไซปัน หลังจาก หักบัญชี หักบัญชี ยุ่ง ยุ่ง ลาดตระเวน และ การ ปฏิบัติ หน้าที่ คุ้มกัน จนถึง วัน ที่ ที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ เธอ เดินทาง ไป ไซปัน หลังจาก หักบัญชี 6 ที่ ที่ Ulithi 19 เดือน มีนาคม อสุรกาย นึ่ง โอ กิ นา ว่า ว่า เมื่อ มา ถึง ที่ นั่น นั่น ใน วัน ที่ 25 มีนาคม เธอ เริ่ม ปฏิบัติการ กวาด ทุ่นระเบิด ก่อน การ บุกรุก ทาง ทาง ทะเล และ ช่อง ทาง เรือ ลำ ดัง กล่าว กล่าว คง อยู่ ใน พื้นที่ พื้นที่ โอกินาวา จนถึง วัน ที่ 6 สิงหาคม ใน ช่วง เวลา นี้ เธอ เธอ ดำ น้ำ ลาดตระเวน กวาด เหมือง เหมือง โอกินาวา และ และ Iheya ชิ มะ และ ทำให้ ทั้ง สอง เร ต ติ้ง เปิด น้ำ ทะเล ใน ทะเลจีน ทะเลจีน ตะวันออก ขณะ ออก ลาดตระเวน อิ เอะ ทะเลจีน ชิ ตะวันออก ขณะ ออก ลาดตระเวน อิ เอะ ชิ ชิ มะ เมื่อ วัน ที่ 25 พฤษภาคม เธอ ได้ ได้ ยิง เครื่องบิน รบ ของ ญี่ปุ่น ตก

Espectro อยู่ ใน Leyte Gulf ตั้งแต่ วัน ที่ 9 ถึง 27 สิงหาคม เธอ เดินทาง ไป ญี่ปุ่น เมื่อ วัน ที่ ที่ 28 สิงหาคม และ หลังจาก สัมผัส ที่ Buckner Bay ใน โอกินาวา ก็ มา ถึง น่านน้ำ บ้าน ของ ญี่ปุ่น ใน วัน ที่ 9 กันยายน ใน ช่วง สาม เดือน ต่อ มา เธอ กวาด ที่ ที่ นา งา ซา กิ, เซ โบ, Bungo Suido และ สึ ที่ 11 ธันวาคม 2488 อสุรกาย ได้ รับคำ สั่ง ให้ กลับ บ้าน เธอ มา ถึง ซาน ดิ เอ โก ใน วัน ที่ ที่ 11 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2489 และ ถูก ส่ง ต่อ ไป ยัง ออ เร น จ์ เท็ ก ซั ส ซึ่ง เธอ ถูก ถูก จองจำ โดย ไม่ ได้ รับ ค่า คอมมิชชั่น ใน ปี ต่อ มา

Espectro ได้ รับ การ กำหนด MSF-306 ใหม่ ใน วัน ที่ 7 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2498 ใน ขณะ ที่ กำลัง สำรอง เธอ ถูก ตี จาก ทะเบียน เรือ เดิน สมุทร เมื่อ วัน วัน ที่ 1 กรกฎาคม พ.ศ. 2515 และ ขาย ให้ กับ เม็กซิโก ใน วัน ที่ 11 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2516 ใน อาชีพ กองทัพ เรือ สหรัฐ Espectro ได้ รับ รางวัล สี่ ดาว รบ สำหรับ การ รับ ราชการ ใน สงครามโลก ครั้ง ที่ สอง

อดีต ผี ถูก ซื้อ โดย กองทัพ เรือ เม็ก ซิ กัน ใน เดือน เมษายน ปี 1973 และ เปลี่ยน ชื่อ เป็น ARM DM-04 ใน ปี 1994 เธอ ได้ รับ การ เปลี่ยน ชื่อ ARM ทั่วไป มา นู เอ ล อี Rincón (C52) หลังจาก เม็ก ซิ กัน ทั่วไป มา นู เอ ล อี Rincón เธอ ถูก ครอบงำ 16 กรก ฏา คม 2001 [1] แต่ ชะตา กรรม ของ เธอ จะ ไม่ ได้ รายงาน ใน แหล่ง ข้อมูล ทุติย ภูมิ


Submersível POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ISLÂNDIA

Submersível POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ISLÂNDIA Enviado em 29 de maio de 1988. Estava marcado com o carimbo "Alemanha". Foi enviado para Clay Leitch, de Baltimore. MD. Este envelope está em muito bom estado, mas não em perfeitas condições. Por favor . consulte Mais informação

Específicos do artigo
Descrição do item

Submersível POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ISLÂNDIA

Foi enviado em 29 de maio de 1988. Estava marcado com o carimbo "Alemanha". Foi enviado para Clay Leitch, de Baltimore. MD.

Este envelope está em muito bom estado, mas não em perfeitas condições. Por favor, olhe para a varredura e faça seu próprio julgamento.

Membro USCS # 10385 (eu também ganhei o selo de distintivo de mérito quando menino!). Entre em contato comigo se tiver necessidades específicas de cobertura. Tenho milhares à venda, incluindo navais (USS, USNS, USCGC, Guarda Costeira, navio, Marítimo), postos militares, eventos, APO, hotel, história postal, memoribilia, etc. Também ofereço serviço de aprovações com FRETE GRÁTIS para repetir nos EUA clientes.

Um submersível é um pequeno veículo projetado para operar debaixo d'água. O termo submersível é frequentemente usado para diferenciar de outros veículos subaquáticos conhecidos como submarinos, no sentido de que um submarino é uma embarcação totalmente autônoma, capaz de renovar sua própria força e respirar ar, enquanto um submersível é geralmente suportado por uma embarcação de superfície, plataforma, costa equipe ou às vezes um submarino maior. No uso comum pelo público em geral, entretanto, a palavra submarino pode ser usada para descrever uma embarcação que, pela definição técnica, é na verdade um submersível. Existem muitos tipos de submersíveis, incluindo embarcações tripuladas e destravadas, também conhecidas como veículos operados remotamente ou rovs. [1] submersíveis têm muitos usos em todo o mundo, como oceanografia, arqueologia subaquática, exploração oceânica, aventura, manutenção e recuperação de equipamentos e videografia subaquática. [2]

Conteúdo
1 história
2 operação
3 tecnologias
4 submersíveis tripulados de mergulho profundo
5 submersíveis comerciais
6 Mrovs
7 Veja também
8 fontes
9 links externos
História [Editar]
A primeira embarcação subaquática foi projetada e construída pelo inventor americano David bushnell em 1775 como um meio de anexar cargas explosivas a navios inimigos durante a guerra revolucionária americana. O dispositivo, apelidado de tartaruga de bushnell, era uma embarcação oval de madeira e latão. Possuía tanques que eram enchidos de água para fazê-lo mergulhar e depois esvaziados com o auxílio de uma bomba manual para fazê-lo retornar à superfície. O operador usou duas hélices acionadas manualmente para se mover vertical ou lateralmente sob a água. O veículo tinha pequenas janelas de vidro no topo e madeira naturalmente luminescente afixada em seus instrumentos para que pudessem ser lidos no escuro.

A tartaruga de Bushnell foi colocada em ação pela primeira vez em 7 de setembro de 1776 no porto de Nova York para atacar a nave-mãe britânica Hms Eagle. O sargento Ezra Lee dirigia o veículo naquela época. Lee trouxe com sucesso a tartaruga contra a parte inferior do casco da águia, mas não conseguiu anexar a carga por causa das fortes correntes de água.

Operação [Editar]
Além do tamanho, a principal diferença técnica entre um "submersível" e um "submarino" é que os submersíveis não são totalmente autônomos e podem contar com uma instalação de apoio ou embarcação para reposição de energia e gases respiratórios. Os submersíveis normalmente têm um alcance mais curto e operam principalmente debaixo d'água, já que a maioria tem pouca função na superfície. [Carece de fontes?] Alguns submersíveis operam em uma "corda" ou "umbilical", permanecendo conectado a um tender (um submarino, navio de superfície ou plataforma ) Os submersíveis foram capazes de mergulhar a mais de 10 km (6 milhas) abaixo da superfície.

Os submersíveis podem ser relativamente pequenos, comportar apenas uma pequena tripulação e não ter instalações para morar.

Um submersível geralmente tem uma mobilidade muito hábil, fornecida por parafusos de hélice ou jatos de bomba.

Tecnologias [editar]
Existem cinco tecnologias básicas usadas no projeto de submersíveis. Submersíveis de atmosfera única (submersíveis de uma atmosfera) têm um casco pressurizado e os ocupantes estão na pressão atmosférica padrão. Isso requer que o casco seja capaz de suportar a alta pressão da água externa, que é muitas vezes maior do que a pressão interna.

Outra tecnologia chamada pressão ambiente mantém a mesma pressão dentro e fora do vaso. Isso reduz a pressão que o casco deve suportar.

Uma terceira tecnologia é o "submarino molhado", que se refere a um veículo que pode ou não ser fechado, mas em ambos os casos a água inunda o interior, então o equipamento de mergulho é usado para facilitar a respiração. Tanto em subambientes de atmosfera única quanto de pressão ambiente, não há necessidade de usar equipamento de mergulho e os ocupantes podem respirar normalmente sem usar nenhum equipamento.

Submersíveis tripulados de mergulho profundo [editar |
Ictineu 3 é um submersível tripulado com um grande visor de vidro acrílico semiesférico capaz de atingir profundidades de 1.200 m (3.900 pés).

Alguns submersíveis conseguem mergulhar a grandes profundidades. O batiscafo trieste foi o primeiro a atingir a parte mais profunda do oceano, quase 11 km abaixo da superfície, no fundo da trincheira das marianas em 1960.

A China, com seu projeto de jiaolong em 2002, foi o quinto país a enviar um homem 3.500 metros abaixo do nível do mar, seguindo os EUA, França, Rússia e Japão. Em 22 de junho de 2012, o submersível Jiaolong estabeleceu um recorde de mergulho profundo quando o submarino de três pessoas desceu 22.844 pés (6.963 metros) no oceano Pacífico. [3]

Entre os submersíveis mais conhecidos e em operação há mais tempo está o navio de pesquisa de submersão profunda dsv alvin, que leva 3 pessoas a profundidades de até 4.500 metros (14.800 pés). Alvin é propriedade da marinha dos estados unidos e operado pela whoi, e em 2011 havia feito mais de 4.400 mergulhos. [4]

James cameron fez um mergulho recorde de submersível tripulado até o fundo do Challenger, o ponto mais profundo conhecido da trincheira mariana em 26 de março de 2012. O submersível de Cameron foi denominado deepsea challenger e atingiu uma profundidade de 10.908 metros (35.787 pés). [5]

Submersíveis comerciais [editar |
Mais recentemente, empresas privadas, como submarinos triton, llc, sediados na Flórida. O hidrospace Seamagine, os sistemas de subaviador (ou 'sas') e o u-boat worx, com sede na Holanda, desenvolveram pequenos submersíveis para turismo, exploração e viagens de aventura. Uma empresa canadense na columbia britânica chamada sportsub vem construindo submersíveis recreativos pessoais desde 1986 com projetos de piso aberto (cockpits parcialmente inundados). [6] [7] [8] [9]

Mrovs [editar]
Pequenos submersíveis não tripulados chamados "veículos marítimos operados remotamente" ou mrovs são amplamente usados ​​hoje para trabalhar em águas muito profundas ou muito perigosas para mergulhadores.

Veículos operados remotamente (rovs) consertam plataformas de petróleo offshore e prendem cabos a navios afundados para içá-los. Esses veículos operados remotamente são presos por uma corda (um cabo grosso fornecendo energia e comunicações) a um centro de controle em um navio. Os operadores do navio veem imagens de vídeo enviadas de volta do robô e podem controlar suas hélices e braço do manipulador. O naufrágio do titânico foi explorado por tal veículo, bem como por uma embarcação tripulada.


Avaliação

De todos os AoE Guards, Spectre é considerado um dos melhores devido ao fato de que Bone Fracture essencialmente torna Spectre invencível enquanto dura. Blaze é superior a Spectre na maioria dos aspectos, especialmente DPS, mas sua desfibrilação de emergência tem suas limitações, tornando Spectre mais útil para a maioria das situações.

Os espectros também estão disponíveis em caça de cabeças e recrutamento (combinando Guard ou Melee com AoE e tags de sobrevivência), tornando-o relativamente fácil de conseguir.

Savage (para jogadores pré-registrados), Broca e Estelle são boas alternativas para Spectre e tem um desempenho tão bom.

Promover Spectre a Elite 2 é uma obrigação se o jogador quiser fazer uso dela devido às melhorias significativas que ela recebeu. O jogador pode querer promover Spectre a Elite 2 antes de Blaze, se um também a tiver.


Spectar AM-306 - História

batalha de Harris 'Farm, Virgínia, 19 de maio de 1864 batalha de North Anna, Virgínia, 23-27 de maio. 1864
batalha de Shady Grove, Va., 30 de maio de 1864 batalha de Bethesda Church, Va., 31 de maio e
Batalha de 1 de junho de 1864 de Cold Harbor, Virgínia, assalto de 2 a 5 de junho de 1864 em Petersburgo, Virgínia,
Cerco de 17 a 18 de junho de 1864 a Petersburgo, Virgínia, batalha de Weldon Railroad, Virgínia, 1864-1865,
18-21 de agosto de 1864 batalha de Poplar Springs Church, Va., 30 de setembro de 1864 batalha de
Chapel House, Va., 1-3 de outubro de 1864, batalha de Peeble's Farm, Va., 7 de outubro de 1864
batalha de Hatcher's Run, Va., invasão de 27 de outubro de 1864 a Hicksford, Va., 7 a 12 de dezembro,
Batalha de 1864 de Dabney's Mill, Virgínia, 6 de fevereiro de 1865 batalha de White Oak Road, Virgínia,
31 de março de 1865 batalha de Five Forks, Va., 1 de abril de 1865 rendição em Appomattox, Va.,
9 de abril de 1865.


Este site é apresentado para fins de referência sob a doutrina de uso justo. Quando este material for usado, no todo ou em parte, a citação e o crédito apropriados devem ser atribuídos aos Arquivos do Estado de Maryland. ATENÇÃO: O site pode conter material de outras fontes que podem estar protegidas por direitos autorais. A avaliação dos direitos e a citação completa da fonte original são de responsabilidade do usuário.


Leland H. Rehder

Na quarta-feira, 25 de novembro de 2015, perdemos um marido incrível, pai, avô, irmão e amigo. Leland H. Rehder faleceu com sua esposa, filhos e muitos netos ao seu lado. Ele tinha 92 anos.

Lee nasceu em 14 de outubro de 1923, filho de Carl e Mamie (Bergund) Rehder em Cottonwood. Ele era o mais velho de três filhos.

Lee cresceu na propriedade da família na base de Cottonwood Butte. Ele se formou na Cottonwood High School. Ele se alistou na Marinha dos EUA em 1943 e foi dispensado em 1946. Ele serviu no varredor de minas USS Specter AM 306 no Pacífico Sul, incluindo as Filipinas e a invasão de Iwo Jima e Okinawa. Ele estava orgulhoso de seu serviço e de seus companheiros.

Lee casou-se com Barbara Koepl em 21 de junho de 1949, em Nezperce. Eles moravam no & quothome place & quot e abriam uma fazenda de laticínios, criavam carne bovina e porcos e cultivavam. Ele e seus filhos construíram um rebanho leiteiro para 75 vacas até o fechamento da fazenda em 2003, quando ele se aposentou aos 80 anos.

Lee era um membro ativo da comunidade, servindo nos conselhos da St. Gertrude Academy, Prairie Schools, United Dairyman of Idaho, Northwest Dairyman Association e FHA. Ele foi ativo na Igreja Católica de Santa Maria, Cavaleiros de Colombo, Veteranos de Guerras Estrangeiras e na Legião Americana. Lee amava sua fé, família, liberdade e muitos amigos. Ele era um membro respeitado de sua comunidade e não só. Ele era um grande fã dos Seattle Mariners e Gonzaga Bulldogs. Ele gostava da hora do café diário com seus amigos.

Lee deixa sua esposa, Barbara, seus filhos, Jim (Sally), Gary (Lynn), Ron (Doris), Rose, Ken (Doreen), Kevin (Kathy) e Joe (Charlene) e sua irmã Mary (Jim) Ewing. Ele tinha 32 netos e 40 bisnetos.

Ele foi precedido na morte pelo irmão de seus pais, genro de Don, Ed Forsmann, e pelos netos Jennifer e Jacob.

Uma celebração da vida de Lee será realizada com um rosário às 10h na segunda-feira e o funeral às 10h30 na Igreja de Santa Maria em Cottonwood. A agência funerária Uhlorn está encarregada dos preparativos.

O 60º aniversário de casamento de Lee e Barbara (Koepl) Rehder é em 21 de junho de 2009. Eles se casaram em 21 de junho de 1949, em Nezperce, na Igreja Católica da Santíssima Trindade. Eles operaram uma fazenda de gado leiteiro por mais de 50 anos na base de Cottonwood Butte. Eles têm sete filhos: Jim (Sally) Rehder, Gary (Lynn) Rehder, Ron (Doris) Rehder, Rose (Ed) Forsmann, Ken (Doreen) Rehder, Kevin (Kathy) Rehder e Joe (Charlene) Rehder. Eles têm 30 netos e 17 bisnetos (com mais três a caminho).

Lee e Barbara são membros da Igreja Católica de Santa Maria em Cottonwood, onde ela trabalhou como secretária por 25 anos. Lee serviu na Marinha dos Estados Unidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial no Pacífico. Ele serviu em muitos conselhos diferentes, incluindo o conselho da Prairie School por 15 anos.

Foi feita uma foto com 75 familiares presentes e uma festa aconteceu no dia 31 de maio, dia seguinte ao casamento do neto, com um piquenique no parque.

COTTONWOOD - Os descendentes de Henry e Mary Rehder se reuniram em Cottonwood neste verão (2008) para comemorar os 100 anos da herdade de Rehder. Henry e Mary se mudaram para Cottonwood de Missoula, Mont., Em 1908. Os filhos de Henry e Mary eram Carl (casado com Mamie Burgund), Helen (casada com Goffe Eckert), Ella (casada com Hayward Shields), Theodore e Max.

Carl e Mamie Rehder foram representados pelas famílias de Lee e Barb Rehder, Mary Alice e Jim Ewing e Don e Barbara Rehder. Helen e Goffe Eckert foram representados por Rod e Renee Eckert e família. Ella e Hayward Shields foram representados por Dorothy Romig e família.

O dia começou com o segundo torneio anual de golfe do Padre Len Forsmann no Grangeville Country Club. Nove times disputaram o torneio. Depois do torneio de golfe, toda a família Rehder presente se reuniu no celeiro original da propriedade para uma foto de família. As camisetas da família desenhadas e impressas por Vanessa Rehder foram usadas por todos.

Jim e Sally Rehder organizaram uma reunião familiar com boa comida, entretenimento e, o mais importante, memórias de família. Mais de 100 parentes vieram para a celebração dos 100 anos de lugares distantes como Bainbridge Island, Seattle, Kennewick, Spokane, Clarkston, Lewiston, Boise e Brasil.


Conteúdo

Guilford Edit

Durante grande parte do século 20, a indústria de manufatura pesada tendeu a se mover para fora da Nova Inglaterra, tornando a região principalmente um receptor de tráfego de carga, em vez de um originador. A origem do frete ou o transporte de longa distância são muito mais lucrativos do que a entrega final ou de curta distância. As ferrovias da Nova Inglaterra há muito são prejudicadas pelo fluxo de tráfego que as torna agentes de entrega para outras ferrovias e por curtas distâncias. Praticamente o mais longo percurso de uma ferrovia na Nova Inglaterra foi Boston e Maine (marca de reportagem B & ampM) rota do Rio Hudson a Portland, Maine, 267 milhas (430 km) - menos de um oitavo da distância de Seattle a Chicago na BNSF Railway. [3]

Uma fusão que consiste em B & ampM, Maine Central Railroad (MEC) e Delaware & amp Hudson Railway (D & ampH), juntamente com uma ou mais outras ferrovias da Nova Inglaterra, foi proposta já em 1929 pela Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) como parte de sua proposta de fusão em todo o país. Frederic C. Dumaine, Jr., presidente várias vezes da New York, New Haven & amp Hartford Railroad (NH), Bangor & amp Aroostook Railroad e D & ampH, apresentou a mesma ideia. Os benefícios de tal fusão incluiriam economias de escala e viagens mais longas. [3]

Em 1977, Timothy Mellon, herdeiro da rica e influente família Mellon de Guilford, Connecticut, juntou-se ao ex-funcionário da Penn Central David Fink para formar a Perma Treat, uma empresa de tratamento de ferrovias. Mellon queria adquirir uma ferrovia e considerou várias: a Illinois Central Railroad e a Detroit, Toledo & amp Ironton Railroad. Nenhuma dessas aquisições aconteceu, mas o interesse de Mellon por ferrovias continuou. [3] A aprovação do Staggers Rail Act em 1980 permitiu que Mellon e Fink executassem um plano de negócios (ao contrário dos ferrovias anteriores da região), centrando-se na compra de tantas ferrovias locais quanto possível, criando assim uma integração horizontal completa sobre a Nova Inglaterra e os estados do norte do Meio-Atlântico, e ganhando eficiências de escala.

Em junho de 1981, Mellon comprou a MEC e sua subsidiária Portland Terminal Company (então propriedade da U.S. Filter Corporation) por meio de sua holding, Guilford Transportation Industries. [3] [4] Em junho de 1983, o B & ampM se tornou a segunda parte do sistema Guilford, trazendo consigo uma subsidiária, a Springfield Terminal Railway de 10,5 milhas, uma antiga linha interurbana que conecta Springfield, Vermont a Charlestown, Nova Hampshire. A subsidiária do Terminal Springfield continua a existir e abriga a maior parte do lado operacional de toda a empresa, incluindo equipes de trem e despacho. [3] [5]

A formação da Penn Central (PC) em 1968 e sua aquisição do NH no final do ano deixaram a Nova Inglaterra com apenas uma conexão não-PC para o resto do país: o intercâmbio da B & ampM com a D & ampH em Mechanicville, Nova York. O D&PH fez uma extensão lógica para o sistema de Guilford - e necessária se Guilford fosse ser mais do que uma empresa de terminal para o tráfego de Conrail que se movia para a Nova Inglaterra. D & ampH estava cercado por Conrail e não estava indo bem. O estado de Nova York, que havia financiado grande parte do programa de reabilitação da D&PH, abordou Guilford sobre a aquisição da ferrovia. Em outubro de 1981, a Norfolk & amp Western Railway, que possuía a D & ampH por meio de uma holding subsidiária, concordou em vendê-la para a Guilford. A compra foi concluída no início de 1984. [3]

Na época em que o sistema Guilford foi formado, a multiplicidade de ferrovias de conexão havia se tornado uma ferrovia única, saudável e bem administrada: Conrail. Qualquer tráfego com destino à Nova Inglaterra originado por Conrail se moveria o mais longe possível em Conrail antes de ser entregue a Guilford (por exemplo, para Springfield, Massachusetts, em vez de Buffalo, Nova York), e se moveria mais rápido. O Guilford permaneceu como uma ferrovia de curta duração, terminando. [3]

Editar Abandono

Os primeiros anos de Guilford foram definidos por abandono, agitação trabalhista e greves, e um estilo de gestão draconiano que prejudicou a reputação da empresa. A ferrovia lutou financeiramente para ter lucro e implementou medidas de corte de custos. [3] Guilford então começou a encolher seu sistema, eliminando rotas marginais de baixa densidade.

A Divisão de Montanha da MEC, de Portland, Maine, a St. Johnsbury, Vermont, quase não transportava tráfego local e servia apenas para dar à MEC uma conexão com uma ferrovia diferente de B & ampM. Com a formação do sistema Guilford, ele foi considerado redundante. B & ampM agora fazia parte da família, e trocar o tráfego com a Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) em Mattawamkeag, Maine, era mais fácil do que lutar contra as notas de Crawford Notch em New Hampshire. [3] Uma seção em New Hampshire foi recuperada e renascida como a Conway Scenic Railroad.

Da mesma forma, o único negócio na filial de Calais da MEC de Bangor a Calais, Maine, estava no extremo leste, que poderia ser alcançado pela CP. O serviço na maior parte da filial foi descontinuado e a linha foi vendida para o Departamento de Transporte do Maine (MaineDOT). [3] O serviço restante em Calais atende uma fábrica de celulose em Woodland e é operado pela ST MaineDOT aluga um segmento de 10 milhas (16 km) entre Brewer e Ellsworth para a Downeast Scenic Railroad. [6] O segmento Ellsworth-Calais restante de 85 milhas (137 km) foi alugado para Downeast Sunrise Trail, uma trilha ferroviária provisória. [7]

Rockland Branch da MEC de Brunswick a Rockland, Maine, também estava no bloco de desbastamento, como era parte da Lower Road, a rota Portland-Waterville via Augusta, Maine. [3] Esta filial seria posteriormente vendida para a MaineDOT e operada em seu nome pela Maine Eastern Railroad até o final de 2015, quando as operações foram transferidas para Central Maine and Quebec Railway (CMQ). Em breve, a operação deste ramal seria transferida para a CP, com a aquisição da CMQ por aquele sistema ferroviário. [8]

Disputas trabalhistas e má gestão Editar

Guilford anunciou demissões, fechamento de lojas e cortes de salários. Os trabalhadores de manutenção do MEC entraram em greve em março de 1986, e a greve se espalhou para B & ampM e D & ampH. Para tirar proveito de uma escala de salários mais baixa e regras de trabalho mais flexíveis que se aplicam às ferrovias de linhas curtas, Guilford começou a alugar partes do MEC e B & ampM para a subsidiária Springfield Terminal (ST) da B & ampM para operação. Isso economizou dinheiro para Guilford, mas enfureceu o trabalho, resultando em outra greve mais longa em 1987. [9] Em 1988, um árbitro em nome do ICC decidiu que Guilford não poderia arrendar o D & ampH para a ST e teve que obedecer ao pré-ST acordos trabalhistas. [9] A decisão precipitou o D & ampH em falência. Guilford retirou-se da D&PH e informou ao governo federal que encerrariam as operações. A New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway foi ordenada pelo governo federal para operar a ferrovia sob subsídio até que um comprador pudesse ser encontrado. [9] Embora o NY & ampSW tenha feito sua própria oferta pela ferrovia, em 1991 o D & ampH foi vendido para a CP Rail, onde se tornou uma ferrovia mais próspera do que durante a gestão de Guilford. [3] The Philadelphia Inquirer mais tarde comentou que Guilford havia "se tornado a ruína do trabalho organizado por uma abordagem dura e conflituosa para cortar custos". [9] Most railroad executives dismissed Mellon as a wealthy heir who suffered from gross mismanagement, possessed a willful misunderstanding of the inner workings of a railroad, and was a "stubborn ideologue". [9]

Amtrak conflicts Edit

Guilford proved to be an unwilling participant in assisting Amtrak on several occasions, forcing the U.S. federal government to get involved. The company had two north–south routes to Canada, the D&H line north from Albany and B&M's Connecticut River Line. The D&H line was in better condition, so Guilford downgraded the B&M route, reducing maintenance. Complications arose. B&M and the Central Vermont Railway (CV) each owned a portion of the route. South of Brattleboro and north of Windsor, Vermont, CV maintained its track so that good speeds were possible, but between those two points was a 50-mile (80 km) stretch of B&M track, much of it limited to 10 mph (16 km/h). Amtrak, whose Montrealer used the route, found the slow running intolerable. [9] The train was suspended in 1987, and the ICC ordered B&M to sell the Windsor-Brattleboro segment to Amtrak, which immediately resold it to CV, who rehabilitated the track. [9] O Montrealer was restored in 1989 on a new route: CV all the way from New London, Connecticut, to Cantic, Quebec, bypassing B&M entirely. [3]

Service on Amtrak's new Downeaster line between Boston and Portland was delayed when negotiations between Guilford and the national passenger carrier slowed due to the former's issues with equipment weight and speed limits. In December 1998, a speed limit of 79 miles per hour (127 km/h) was agreed upon between both parties, with the Surface Transportation Board (STB) approving it in 1999. Guilford then refused to assist Amtrak with any track improvements, forcing the STB to deal with Guilford on Amtrak's behalf. Track upgrades were eventually made in 2000, but the proposed 2001 start-up was further delayed when Guilford refused to allow Amtrak speeds in excess of 59 miles per hour (95 km/h) (despite STB approval of 79 mph), as well as prohibiting Amtrak from operating test trains. Again the STB informed Guilford that they were in violation of their agreements signed with Amtrak. Downeaster service finally began on December 14, 2001. [10]

Expansion attempt Edit

In 1985, Guilford entered into an agreement with Norfolk Southern Railway (NS) to run trains to St. Louis. NS was attempting to win approval of a plan to purchase Conrail from the U.S. government and proposed allowing Guilford to lease Conrail lines to St. Louis in order to restore competition that would be lost in the merger. The plan would have allowed Guilford to use the Conrail mainline from Toledo to Ridgeway, Ohio, and from Crestline, Ohio, to St. Louis. Guilford would also purchase 955 miles (1,537 km) of Conrail track and 1,300 freight cars from Norfolk Southern for $53M. [11] NS did not prevail in its attempt to purchase Conrail in 1985, and the Guilford plan was dropped. In 1987, Guilford also placed a bid to buy Southern Pacific. [12]

The paper industry provides the largest source of business, with chemicals, clay and pulp inbound, and finished paper outbound. But the railroad has been losing ground to other forms of transportation - particularly trucking. A 2008 report issued by the American Society of Civil Engineers rated Maine at 48th of the 50 states in volume of freight traffic that moves by rail. [13] The Maine Motor Transport Association web page reports that trucks transport 94% of total manufactured tonnage in Maine. [14]

Despite the general growth in freight transport throughout the US, Guilford's growth remained stagnant after an initial increase in the 1990s. After the creation of Pan Am Railways, traffic dropped considerably. A report issued by MaineDOT listed traffic on MEC as being 162,658 loads in 1972. [15] As of 2008, Pan Am traffic over the remaining portions of MEC was estimated to be less than 69,000 loads. [16] During the same time span, the Association of American Railroads estimates that freight traffic throughout the US more than doubled. [17] [ falha na verificação ]

In 1998, Guilford bought the name, colors and logo of Pan American World Airways. In March 2006, Guilford Transportation Industries changed its name to Pan Am Systems, and Guilford Rail System was rebranded as Pan Am Railways (PAR). Then in March 2009, PAR was ordered to pay the largest corporate criminal fine in Massachusetts history — $500,000 — due to the company's negligence to report a spill of hundreds of gallons of diesel fuel in violation of state and federal environmental laws and regulations. [18]

As of 2011, PAR employs 750 people and has a $40 million payroll. [19] The company continues to operate with subsidiary entities bearing the names of former railroads which over time formed the present day company. The company's assets are housed separately in these various subsidiaries for various reasons. For example, the Boston and Maine Corporation owns the railroad property itself while the Springfield Terminal branch operates the railroad (most of the company's employees are under the Springfield Terminal umbrella.) Meanwhile, the Maine Central entity owns rolling stock.

Norfolk Southern Edit

On May 15, 2008, NS announced that it had come to an agreement with PAR to "create an improved rail route between Albany, New York, and the Boston, Massachusetts, region, named the Patriot Corridor. [20] [21] [22] The STB approved the deal on March 10, 2009, [23] with each railroad owning 50% of a new company known as Pan Am Southern (PAS). PAR's trackage between Ayer, Massachusetts, and Mechanicville, New York, was transferred to PAS and continues to be operated and maintained by PAR's ST subsidiary. NS transferred to PAS cash and property valued at $140 million.

Improvements to the route include track and signal upgrades, and expansion of terminals, including construction of new automotive and intermodal terminals in Ayer and Mechanicville. [24] In March 2012, the Federal Railroad Administration awarded a $2-million grant to the Massachusetts Department of Transportation for preliminary engineering on removing 19 obstacles to allow double stack container trains to use the Patriot Corridor route. The project includes raising clearance by two feet in the 4.75-mile (7.64 km) Hoosac Tunnel. [25]

Disputes with local governments Edit

The company has been criticized for dumping used railroad ties that contain creosote rather than sending them for safe disposal or recycling. [26]

CSX acquisition Edit

Pan Am was put up for sale in July 2020. [27] On November 30, 2020, CSX announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to purchase Pan Am Railways, Inc. The sale of Pan Am to CSX is subject to regulatory review and approval of the Surface Transportation Board. [28] [29]

PAR's main line runs from Mattawamkeag, Maine, to Mechanicville, New York, via the lines of the following former companies:

  • MEC:European and North American Railway, MEC main line
  • B&M: B&M main line, Lowell and Andover Railroad
  • Boston & Lowell Railroad: Nashua & Lowell Railroad, Stony Brook Railroad
  • Fitchburg Railroad: Fitchburg Railroad main line, Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, Troy and Greenfield Railroad, Southern Vermont Railroad, Troy & Boston Railroad, Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & Western Railway

Heritage locomotives Edit

In August 2011, PAR repainted an EMD GP9 locomotive (ST #77) into the maroon and gold "Minuteman" paint scheme used on B&M locomotives in the 1950s. [30] In December 2011, ST GP9 #52 was repainted using MEC's 1950s-era "Pine Tree Route" green and gold livery. [31] Both were sold to the Heber Valley Railroad and departed Pan Am property in September 2018.


Conteúdo

Specter ghost, or something that haunts the mind

  • Oliva: The olive tree. It is speculated that it is a pun on "o-live" in 'alive specter (ghost)'.
  • Ichabod (Olive's third husband): Hebrew for 'without honor'. Could refer to the character Ichabod of Sleepy Hollow.
  • Planchette (An unlinked descendant of the Spector/Specter family): A planchette is the name of a piece of wood designed to hold a pencil, used in séances to communicate with the spirits of the dead.

Rigger Mortis (Olive's first husband): 'Rigger' means to rig or dresses, while 'Mortis' refers to the French word 'mort', which means death. Rigor Mortis is a state in which a corpse's limbs become stiff and difficult to move.

Hugh Thanasia (Olive's second husband): From the word 'Euthanasia', means literally "good death" in Ancient Greek. Refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner.

Lou Thanasia (Hugh's brother): A shortening of the given name Louis. Louis means "Famed Warrior." Sounds similar to Hugh Thanasia, so could also mean "good death."

Earl E. DeMise (Olive's fiancé): Means "Early Demise", early death.

Tim Lee DeMise (Earl's brother): Perhaps could refer to "Timely Demise" - "timely death."

Nigmos -- Possibly taken from "enigma" - a mysterious occurrence, also means "a confusing character or person", which could possibly refer to Olive herself.

  • Ofélia (Olive's niece): In Ancient Greek, it means "help." May also refer to the Shakespeare character Ophelia from "Hamlet," who went mad and drowned herself.
  • Salgueiro (Ophelia's mother, Olive's sister): Refers to the Willow Tree. May also refer to willow as a word meaning erode as "willowing away"
  • Creon (Ophelia's father): In Greek, means 'ruler'. Also is in Oedipus Rex a character named Creon. Many of his relatives died: his grandnephews in duel his brother-in-law was murdered by Oedipus his son, daughter-in-law and sister by suicide and he himself is murdered by Lycus.
  • Hécate (Ophelia's paternal grandmother): Greek for far-shooting. Refers to the goddess of darkness, spirits, witchcraft, and the crossroads.
  • Zog (Ophelia's paternal grandfather): In Dutch, zog comes from "kielzog" which means wake, the white turbulent water behind a boat.

Muenda -- Could refer to Munda, which is a place in the Solomon Islands. Muenda is also a traditional African name meaning "one who cares for others" in the Meru language.


Authorize Weapons Sales [ edit | editar fonte]

C-Sec has noticed that weapons dealers are breaking regulations by selling weapons to civilians without the proper permits. The dealers have argued that they are giving civilians the ability to protect themselves, and many C-Sec officials privately sympathize. Spectre authorization will give C-Sec officers leeway to turn a blind eye to sales that they deem harmless. This could improve morale around the Citadel in the wake of the Cerberus attack.

After supporting the Angry Merchant at Aegohr Munitions.


Spectar AM-306 - History

This Pioneer Crystal Rocket Radio model MG-306 was manufactured by Miniman Radio Co. Ltd in Japan circa 1960.

Miniman Radio Co. Ltd took advantage of the space craze sweeping the world during the 1960’s and made lots of novelty crystal radios shaped like rockets! You can see many of their designs featured in author Eric Wrobbel's fine booklets.

 

 

 

This Miniman Rocket Radio uses a germanium diode to convert radio waves into sound. Germanium is a brittle gray crystalline element that when purified can be used as a semiconductor.

To listen, simply attach the alligator clip to a suitable antenna a bedspring or large metal object etc and insert the earplug into your ear. This radio does not use a separate ground connection, it uses the listeners body as the ‘ground’. It features a tuning knob that raises and lowers the numbered yellow tip.

With its fun ‘jet age’ design this Rocket Radio would have appealed to the parents of young children and many would have been given as gifts.

It measures just 168mm x 38mm.

 

 

                                      

 

Often these crystal radios from the 1950’s and 1960’s are ruined by melt marks. Unfortunately many owners stored their rocket radios with the attached wires wrapped around the plastic body. O ver time the vinyl insulation covering the wires reacts with the plastic body of the radio and inflicts nasty melt marks on it.

It is a good idea to wrap the wires in plastic when in storage.

 

 

This rocket radio comes with a gift box, instructions, and the original plastic storage bag with groovy yellow graphics! The gift box also features some great retro space age graphics!

I have seen a similar rocket radio that the advertiser tried to pass off as a transistor radio. To see that advertisement and others click here.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The plastic storage bag.

 

The alligator clip and earphone.

 

 
   'Japan' and the model number 'MG-306' are printed on the bottom of the radio .

   


Assista o vídeo: Classic Suits Moments That Changed Everything (Novembro 2021).