A história

Juan Yague


Juan Yagüe, filho de um médico, nasceu na Espanha em 1891. Ingressou na Academia de Infantaria de Toledo, onde conheceu Francisco Franco. Os dois homens foram comissionados ao mesmo tempo e serviram juntos na África.

Em 1932, Yagüe foi promovido ao posto de tenente-coronel de um batalhão de infantaria na Espanha. Dois anos depois, ele se juntou a Franco na repressão do levante de esquerda nas Astúrias. Nessa época, ele se tornou estreitamente associado à Falange Española.

A Frente Popular chegou ao poder em fevereiro de 1936. O novo governo incomodou imediatamente os conservadores ao libertar todos os prisioneiros políticos de esquerda. O governo também introduziu reformas agrárias que penalizaram a aristocracia latifundiária. Outras medidas incluíram a transferência de líderes militares de direita, como Francisco Franco, para cargos fora da Espanha, proibir a Falange Española e conceder autonomia política e administrativa à Catalunha.

Como resultado dessas medidas, os ricos retiraram vastas somas de capital do país. Isso criou uma crise econômica e o valor da peseta diminuiu, o que prejudicou o comércio e o turismo. Com os preços subindo, os trabalhadores exigiram salários mais altos. Isso levou a uma série de greves na Espanha.

Em 10 de maio de 1936, o conservador Niceto Alcala Zamora foi deposto como presidente e substituído pelo esquerdista Manuel Azaña. Pouco depois, oficiais do Exército espanhol, incluindo Yagüe, Emilio Mola, Francisco Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano e José Sanjurjo, começaram a conspirar para derrubar o governo da Frente Popular. Isso resultou na eclosão da Guerra Civil Espanhola em 17 de julho de 1936.

Yagüe e suas tropas capturaram Mérida. Em 14 de agosto de 1936, Yagüe e 3.000 soldados atacaram Badajoz. Lutas de rua acirradas ocorreram quando o Exército Nacionalista entrou na cidade. As perdas foram pesadas de ambos os lados e quando os nacionalistas assumiram o controle de Badajoz, alegou-se que massacraram cerca de 1.800 pessoas. Ele também encorajou suas tropas a estuprar partidários do governo da Frente Popular. Como resultado, Yagüe ficou conhecido como "O Açougueiro de Badajoz".

Yagüe então voltou suas forças para Madrid, capturando Trujillo, Navalmoral de la Mata e Talavera. Em novembro de 1936, ele recebeu o comando das forças africanas, mas não conseguiu capturar a capital. Ele agora participou da ofensiva de Aragão e assumiu o controle de Belchite, Caspe e Lérida. Ele também desempenhou um papel importante na vitória no rio Ebro.

Após a derrota do Exército Republicano, o General Francisco Franco nomeou Yagüe como Ministro da Aeronáutica. Juan Yagüe morreu em 29 de outubro de 1952.


Juventude [editar | editar fonte]

Filho de um médico, matriculou-se ainda jovem na Academia de Infantaria de Toledo, onde Francisco Franco foi colega cadete. Os dois homens receberam suas comissões simultaneamente e serviram juntos na África, onde Yagüe foi ferido em várias ocasiões e recebeu várias condecorações.

Yagüe foi promovido a tenente-coronel em 1932. Ele, junto com Franco e o general López Ochoa, ajudou a reprimir uma revolta de trabalhadores nas Astúrias usando regulares e legionários marroquinos em 1934. Ele foi um grande apoiador da Falange Española e amigo pessoal próximo da José Antonio Primo de Rivera.


Índice

Formación y carrera militar Editar

Nacido en la localidad soriana de San Leonardo el 9 de novembro de 1891. [8] Era hijo de Juan Yagüe Rodrigo, médico oriundo de Ucero (Soria), y de Maximiana Blanco Salas, natural de la localidad burgalesa de Salas de los Infantes . [9]

Em agosto de 1907, ingresó na Academia de Infantería de Toledo era mientras diretor de la misma el coronel Juan San Pedro y Cea. [10] Coincidió en la misma promoción que los generales Francisco Franco y Emilio Esteban Infantes. En 1912 es ascendido a primer teniente después de cuatro años de destino en Burgos, y hasta marzo de 1914 no pasa a prestar sus servicios en el Regimiento de Infantería "Saboya" n.º 6, de guarnición en Tetuán. [11]

Algún tiempo depois de Yagüe marchó a África, donde combatió en la guerra del Rif dentro de las fuerzas de la Legión. Fue allí donde se ganó la fama oficial "africanista", [12] al igual que otros mandos como Varela, Millán-Astray, Sanjurjo, Goded o Franco. [3]

Se afilió a Falange Española depois de la proclamación de la Segunda República. De hecho, nunca mostró demasiadas simpatías por el novo régimen, al considerado que a República habita frustrado em carrera militar. [13] No octubre de 1934 fue enviado às Astúrias ao mando de las tropas africanas com a missão de reprimir a los obreros y mineros asturianos que se habían rebelado. En principio, este puesto lo ocupaba el teniente coronel López Bravo, pero el jefe del Estado Prefeito, Francisco Franco, lo sustituyó cuando expresó alguna duda acerca de que as tropas fueran a disparar contra a población civil. [14] Uma vez desplegado nas Astúrias, Yagüe destacou-se pelo empleo de uma violência extraordinária na representação dos obreros insurrectos. [15] Cuando el general Eduardo López Ochoa alcanzó un acuerdo con los obreros, Yagüe se indignó y mantuvo una encendida discusión con López Ochoa, llegando um acusarlo de ser cómplice dos rebeldes. [16]

Yagüe, amigo de José Antonio Primo de Rivera, era militante da Falange e sua atuação política siempre flutua entre a ideologia e a fidelidade a Franco. Em momentos delicados como a unificação de Falange com os carlistas de 1937, que generó algunos confltos, siempre optó por el segundo.

Conspiración militar Editar

Después de las elecciones de febrero de 1936, Yagüe pasó a integrar la conspiración militar para derribar al Gobierno del Frente Popular. Por aquel entonces era o comandante de um de las banderas de la Legión, ostentando o rango de teniente coronel y destinado a Ceuta.

A mediados de julio, no transcurso de unas maniobras militares do Ejército de África em Llano Amarillo, durante o banquete posterior ao desfile Yagüe celebrou um encontro com outros oficiais implicados no trama golpista. [13] Durante a reunião se oyó en repetidas veces «¡CAFÉ!», Que en realidad quería decir «¡Camaradas, Arriba Falange Española!». [13] Yagüe estaba uma carga de la sublevación militar em Ceuta. [17] A las 23:00 del 17 de julio, após que a sublevación hubiera comenzado en Melilla de forma inesperada, se hizo con el controle de Ceuta de forma rápida y fácil, sen siquiera haber disparado un solo tiro. [18] Uma vez que a rebelião habia triunfado em todos os Marruecos, o descabezamiento de los mandos de la Legión dejó a Juan Yagüe como comandante em jefe de la unidad. [19] Fue el comienzo de la guerra civil española.

Campaña de Extremadura Editar

A principios de agosto de 1936 ya había atravesado el estrecho de Gibraltar y se encontraba en la Península. Em Sevilla, os sublevados organizaron una Columna, al frente de la cual fue puesto Yagüe, formada principalmente con efetivos del Ejército del África. [20] Inmediatamente se puso en marcha, avanzando hacia el norte com o objetivo de llegar em Madrid. La violencia de los legionarios y las tropas marroquíes de Yagüe pronto crearon el terror en Extremadura, provocando la huida de miles de refugiados. [21] En Almendralejo, por ejemplo, murieron alrededor de mil civiles. El 10 de agosto Yagüe alcanzó Mérida, depois de haber avanzado unos trescientos kilómetros en menos de siete días. Esto constituyó una gran victoria, ya que supuso la unión de las fuerzas sublevadas en el sur con las fuerzas de Emilio Mola en el norte. [21] Pero la ciudad de Badajoz había quedado aislada en la retaguardia de los sublevados y seguía resistiendo.

Yagüe e três soldados de sua coluna se dirigem a la capital pacense, donde resistían otros três mil efectivos republicanos, muitos de ellos milicianos. La batalla de Badajoz fue de las más cruentas de la campaña. O 14 de agosto de 1936 se produziu o asalto da Legión contra as murallas de la ciudad, que boletim fue rechazado por las ametralladoras republicanas, causando muchas bajas entre las fuerzas asaltantes um segundo asalto logró entrar na ciudad. La batalla se alargó hasta que anocheció, y tras lo cual las fuerzas del Ejército de África desencadenaron una represión sangrienta. Algunas fuentes hablan de dos mil [22] e cuatro mil civiles ejecutados. [23] La magnitud de la matanza se trasluce, en mayores proporciones, en la respuesta que Yagüe le dio al periodista John T. Whitaker, del New York Herald Tribune, cuando éste o interrogatório sobre o sucesso: [24]

O português Mário Neves fue otro de los poços periodistas que habló con el militar, quien reconoció los fusilamientos que estaban ocurriendo. O historiador Hugh Thomas señala que Yagüe no hizo nada por evitar las ejecuciones. [25] La luego denominada matanza de badajoz provocó un escándalo internacional y supuso que Yagüe acabara siendo conocido como el Carnicero de Badajoz.

La marcha hacia Madrid Editar

Ascendido a coronel, Yagüe continuó el avance hacia Madrid, a lo largo del río Tajo. [25] O 2 de setembro sus fuerzas llegaron a las afueras de Talavera de la Reina e al dia siguiente tomaron al asalto la ciudad, logrando uma importante vitória. Nuevamente, sus fuerzas volvieron a perpetrar otra masacre sobre la población civil. El avance hacia la capital continuó, pero se ralentizó mucho en comparação com as semanas anteriores por el significativo aumento da resistencia republicana. [26] Las bajas también se incrementaron. El 21 de setembro el Ejército de África conquistou a población de Maqueda, donde a carretera se dividía en dos: una continuaba hacia Madrid y la otra se desviaba hacia Toledo, donde resistía un group of fuerzas sublevadas al mando del coronel Moscardó. En ese momento intervino Franco en el mando de las operaciones y decidió desviarse de Toledo, for gran indignación de algunos de los altos mandos sublevados. Yagüe e outros oficiais mantuvieron una postura totalmente opuesta y le advirtieron sobre o erro que suponha esta mudança. [27]

Yagüe fue sustituido por el general Varela, que sería quien continuase el avance hacia Madrid. [28]

Posición política Editar

Em março de 1937 Franco publicou el Decreto de Unificación, por el cual esperaba la unificación de la Falange con la Comunión Tradicionalista carlista en un único partido político, la Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS ) A esta decisão está disponível furibundamente no setor da Falange liderado por Manuel Hedilla, sustituto temporal de Primo de Rivera. En medio del conflto Yagüe llegó a mandar un telegrama a Hedilla en el que le decía: "Hoy más que nunca estoy a sus órdenes". Aunque el telegrama fue interceptado por sus oficiales superiores, Franco ignoró este incidente y no tomó ninguna acción. [29] De hecho, en diciembre de 1937 Franco lo nombró consejero nacional y miembro del Consejo Nacional de FET y de las JONS, que se reunió no burgalés Monasterio de las Huelgas. [30]

Em abril de 1937, durante um discurso em Burgos, Yagüe intercedeu um favor de Hedilla y sus seguidores detenidos, por lo que le fue impuesta una nueva sanción disciplinaria. En ese mismo discurso comentó:

Durante el mismo discurso también llegó a elogiar la capacidad de combate de los republicanos y, en cambio, calificó a los aliados alemanes e italianos de «criminales de presa». [32] Las palabras no gustaron ni a Franco ni a otros oficiales "nacionales" y, a consecuencia de las mismas, le sería retirado el mando de forma temporal. Según Hugh Thomas, por estas fechas el político socialista Indalecio Prieto intentó, sin éxito, entrar em contato com Yagüe com o objetivo de alcançar um compromisso de paz entre os dois bandos. [31]

No octubre de 1937, com o motivo do primer aniversario de la designación de Franco como jefe del Estado, Yagüe pronunció un discurso en San Leonardo en el que volvió a mostrar su lado más beligerante hacia el enemigo: [33]

Nuevamente al mando Editar

Em novembro de 1937 fue puesto al mando del Nuevo Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí.

En el mes de dezembro las fuerzas republicanas atacaron inesperadamente y conquistaron la ciudad de Teruel. Las fuerzas marroquíes de Yagüe fueron rapidamente cumpra a zona para frenar la ofensiva republicana aunque no lograron evitar la caída de la ciudad, um comienzos de 1938. El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí sí logró infligir um importante derrota do Ejército , lo cual debilitó las defensas republicanas. [35] La lucha continuó hasta que, en febrero de 1938, los franquistas volvían a hacerse con el control de la capital turolense.

Unas semanas depois, o 7 de março de 1938 las fuerzas franquistas comenzaban una nueva ofensiva en el Frente de Aragón, rompiendo la línea de frente en vários pontos a lo largo de vários centos de quilómetros. El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí cresceu na ofensiva na zona situada no rio Ebro, barrando toda a resistência do Ejército republicano. [36] La retirada republicana pronto se convirtió em uma desbandada. Los rápidos avances sublevados se vieron apoyados from el aire por la Legión Cóndor. El 16 de marzo las divisiones de Yagüe habían cercado la población de Caspe y al día siguiente lograron conquistarla tras una dura batalla contra las Brigadas internacionales. En poco más de uma semana o Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí había avanzado ciento diez kilómetros. [37] Tras un corto descanso para reorganizar sus fuerzas, Yagüe reanudó el avance e o 25 de março entraron na Catalunha. Entonces el avance de los marroquíes de Yagüe se dirigiu hacia la ciudad de Lérida. Esta vez se toparon com a resistencia encarnada de la 46.ª División republicana de "El Campesino", alargándose los combates durante uma semana antes de haber conquistado todo el casco urbano. [38] El 15 de abril la zona republicana quedó partida en dos con la conquista «nacional» de Vinaroz y la llegada al mar. Tras los combates de Aragón, o mal estado en que se encontraban las unidades republicanas habría permitido que los Ejércitos franquistas pudieran conquistar Cataluña sin demasiado esfuerzo. Pero Franco decidiu deter o largo de los ríos Segre y Ebro, y continuar el avance hacia Valência a través del Maestrazgo, en contra de los consejos de sus generales. Yagüe censuró en esta decisão privada, lo que le valió uma suspensão temporal del mando. [39]

El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí se situó a lo largo de la margen sur río Ebro, guarneciendo su orilla. Durante vários meses, a situação permanente tranquila pero a las doce y cuarto de la noche del 25 de julio los republicanos comenzaron a cruzar el río en gran número, atacando un frente que iba from Mequinenza a Amposta. El ataque pilló por sorpresa a buena parte de los defensores, lo que permitió a las fuerzas republicanas efectuar una gran penetración. Yagüe fue, hacia las dos y media, cuando todos sus puestos defensivos se hallaban bajo el ataque enemigo. [40] Tras el choque inicial las unidades del Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí comenzaron fortificarse y a organizar la defensa en torno a dos pontos fortificados: Gandesa y la Villalba de los Arcos. Las dotes de Yagüe como organizador se hicieron patentes entonces. [41] Mientras, Franco comenzó a enviar refuerzos que afluían hacia el frente del Ebro. Las fuerzas de Yagüe logran contener la acometida republicana pero durante semanas sem capacidade de expulsar a las unidades del Ejército del Ebro y apenas avanzan unos pocos kilómetros al precio de un gran número de bajas. [42] Entre agosto e octubre se lanzaron varias contraofensivas generales contra las posiciones republicanas, consiguiendo pocos avances. No embargo, a comienzos de noviembre la defensa republicana comenzó a derrumbarse y Yagüe lanzó a sus fuerzas al asalto. El 3 de novembro los marroquíes alcanzan el río Ebro y precipitan la retir de los republicanos. Para o 16 de novembro os últimos efeitos do Ejército popular cruzan el río, poniendo fin a la batalla del Ebro. [43]

Después del comienzo de la ofensiva de Cataluña, el 3 de enero de 1939 el Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí cruzó el río Ebro y comenzó a avanzar hacia Tarragona, que cayó el 14 de enero. Yagüe continua avanzando por la costa y la mañana del 26 de enero entraba em Barcelona, ​​sin haber encontrado apenas resistencia en su avance. [44] A partir do meio-ambiente com a ocupação do centro urbano, encontrando um recibimento caluroso por parte dos simpatizantes franquistas em Barcelona. [45]

Ministro del Aire Editar

Tras o final da guerra é ascendido a geral de divisão, e realizado em maio de 1939 un viaje a la Alemania nazi acompañando a la Legión Cóndor em seu regreso. [46] Durante o tempo que estuvo na Alemanha, Yagüe estudió las instituciones y organizaciones nazis, viéndose atraído por ellas. [7] Estando allí se vio profundamente atraído pela política social nazi, el Ejército e muito especialmente por la Luftwaffe. Esto le llevó um contato constante com o mariscal Hermann Wilhelm Göring, que a su vez era comandante de la Luftwaffe. [7] Yagüe se convirtió en un activo germanófilo. [47] El 9 de agosto Franco le nombró Ministro del Aire. [48]

Desde seu poder como ministro, Yagüe intentó criar um novo Ejército del Aire contando com a ayuda da Alemania nazi e Itália, e com a clara intenção de que participase na futura guerra mundial em favor do Eje. [49] Yagüe ya había enviado varios oficiales a los centros de entrenamiento de Alemania e Italia, y seu plano contemplava a adquisición de 5000 aparatos para el Ejército del Aire, siguiendo o modelo de la Luftwaffe alemana. [50] La Fuerza Aérea española de entonces disponía de 14 regimientos y tres grupos aéreos, [51] compuestos a su vez por 172 cazas y 164 bombardeos de distinto tipo, junto a 82 aviones de cooperación y otros 75 aparatos capturados a los republicanos. [52] Los informes emitidos por el Estado Mayor, sin embargo, dejaban en evidencia el mal estado en que se encontraban los aviones, la falta de repuestos y de combustible. [53] Finalmente el intento no tuvo éxito dada la pésima situación en que se encontraba el país y la imposibilidad de llevar a cabo semejante proyecto en contos condiciones. Como ministro, también auspició o nombramiento del Teniente coronel Luis Navarro Garnica como presidente del Atlético de Aviación.

El 27 de junho de 1940 es destituido de su cargo por Franco y confinado en su pueblo natal, San Leonardo, en Soria. O pretexto oficial fue el haber dicho al embajador de Estados Unidos que el Reino Unido estaba derrotado y que lo tenía merecido. La realidad fue que Yagüe se había vuelto más explícito en sus críticas a Franco y oponiéndose a la política revanchista de Franco, estaba reabilitando a oficiales de aviación republicanos, e incluso se había implicado em um trama para derrocar a Franco, que fue descubierta por el servicio secreto. [54] Fue sustituido en su cargo ministerial pelo general Juan Vigón. [55]

Em 1941, Yagüe comenzó dirige la Colonia Penitenciaria de San Leonardo, um completo concentracionario de prisioneiros criado com o fin de reconstruir seu pueblo natal y mejorar sus infraestructuras. No embargo, debido a su incompetencia organizativa, la Dirección General de Seguridad terminó poniendo al frente a un oficial de prisiones para solventar los problemas existentes. Este funcionario, tras visitar la localidad, envió um informe a sus superiores en el que denunciaba que el había hablado «en tono de censura» de Franco y de Serrano Suñer, y terminaba con esta valoración sobre Yagüe: «Da la impresión de estar perturbado ». [56]

Nuevos mandos Editar

Dos años más tarde el 12 de novembro de 1942 es rehabilitado por Franco, que lo nombra comandante militar de Melilla y delegado del Gobierno em aquella plaza. [57] Este nombramiento se produziu unos días después de que los Aliados hubieran desembarcado em las colonias francesas del Norte de África. Yagüe es ascendido a teniente general em julho de 1943 e o 10 de octubre se hace cargo da capitanía general da VI Región Militar, com sede em Burgos, y de la jefatura del Cuerpo de Ejército de Navarra. [57] Como Capitán general de Burgos desarrolló um importante trabalho social en la ciudad, [57] con la construcción de la Ciudad deportiva cívico-militar, la barriada de viviendas "Juan Yagüe" y también de la denominada "Residencia Sanitaria General Yagüe ". El hospital fue finalmente inaugurado em 1960 e permaneció activo hasta 2012, cuando fue sustituido por el nuevo Hospital Universitario de Burgos.

A pesar de su nuevo nombramiento, se mantuvo activo en varias conspiraciones contra Franco. [58] Durante esta etapa, foi mantida uma correspondência secreta com Juan de Borbón, na Iagüe manifesto no malestar com Franco e apostado por uma restauração monárquica, por um caminho de sustentação a Franco por um Conselho Real presidido por Agustín Muñoz Grandes: [ 59]

No embargo, o suerte da Alemania nazi muda para tras su catastrófica derrota na Batalla de Stalingrado e Hitler empezou a perder la guerra. Em outubro de 1944, como capitão geral da VI Região Militar tuvo um papel relevante no rechazo da invasão do Vale de Arán por republicanos españoles que habían combatido na Resistência francesa durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Juan Yagüe Blanco caiu em Burgos em 1952. Fue ascendido de forma póstuma a capitán general del Ejército, sustituyendo así al general Varela, que también ostentaba el rango a título póstumo. [60] Em 1953 se le concedeu o marquesado de San Leonardo de Yagüe um título póstumo. [61]

Fue uno de los treinta y cinco altos cargos del franquism imputado por la Audiencia Nacional en el sumario instruído por Baltasar Garzón, por los delitos de detención ilegal y crímenes contra a humanidad cometidos durante a Guerra civil española y en los primeros años del régimen, y que no fueron procesados ​​al comprobarse su fallecimiento. [62] [63] [64]

El 8 de maio de 1926 contrajo matrimonio com María Eugenia Martínez del Campo, con la que tuvo seis hijos. [65] Su esposa era hija de Eduardo Martínez del Campo e Acosta, abogado e político, que foi nomeado ser ministro de Gracia e Justicia e Presidente del Tribunal Supremo.


Biografia

Hezkuntza eta prestakuntza militarra

1907ko abuztuan Toledoko Infanteria Akademian sartu zen, garaian Jos & # xE9 Villalba Riquelme koronelak zuzentzen zuelarik eta Francisco Franco e Emilio Esteban Infantes jeneralak izan zituen promozio kide bezala. 1912an lehen teniente postura igoarazi zen Burgosen lau urte egon ostean eta 1914ko maiatzean 6. & quotSavoia & quot Infanteriako Erregimentuan hasi zuen soldadutza. [9]

Afrikara joan, eta bertan Rifeko gerran gudukatu zuen Legioaren parte bezala. Bertan & quotafrikanista & quot [10] fama irabazi zuen, gainontzeko buruek (Varela, Mill & # xE1n-Astray, Sanjurjo, Goded edo Franco) [2] bezala.

Bigarren Errepublikaren aldarrikapenaren ondoren Falange Espainiarrera afiliatu zen ez zegoelarik erregimen berriarekin ados, bere karrera militarra zapuztu zuelakoan. [11] 1934ko urrian Asturiasera bidali zuten Armada Afrikarraren buru bezala, bertan matxinaturiko langile eta meatzariak erreprimitzeko helburuarekin. Hasiera batean L & # xF3pez Bravo koronela zegoen buruzagi bezala, baina Francok ordezkatu zuen tropek zibilen aurka tiro egiteari buruz zituen dudak adieraztean. [12] & # x200B Behin Asturiasen, Yag & # xFCek indarkeri eta bortxakeri kemenduna erakutsi zuen langile altsatuen aurka [13], hainbesteraino, não Eduardo L & # xF3pez Ochoa jenabaxenerala langileekin hitzarmen ezanerala arte kenerala zuen batau batau hitzarmenu baterau aldeko izateaz salatu zuen. [14]

Juan Jos & # xE9 Antonio Primo de Riveraren laguna izanik eta Falangearen militantea, bere ideologia beti egon zen aipaturikoen printzipio eta Francorekiko leialtasunaren artean. Falangearen eta karlisten bateratzea (1937) bezalako momentu gakoetan beti jo zuen Francoren alde.

Konspirazio militarra

1936ko otsaileko hauteskundeen ondoren, Yag & # xFCe Fronte Popularraren gobernua erorarazteko azpilanen parte bilakatu zen. Garai hartan Legioaren banderetako baten komandante zen, Teniente koronel mailarekin eta Ceutan finkatua.


CAROLINE ANGUS

A Batalha de Badajoz foi uma das primeiras batalhas principais e vitórias para os rebeldes nacionalistas de direita na Guerra Civil Espanhola. Vencido em 14 de agosto de 1936, o massacre de Badajoz há muito é usado como propaganda contra as cruéis forças de Franco.

A guerra já tinha quase um mês. As áreas controladas pelos exércitos nacionalistas foram divididas entre o norte e o sul e precisavam conectar seus territórios. Badajoz, uma cidade de cerca de 41.000 habitantes, na fronteira com Portugal, tornou-se o alvo principal. As forças nacionalistas partiram de Sevilha para o norte, em direção ao centro de Madri. Em 10 de agosto, o coronel Juan Yague (um notório assassino, especialmente de inocentes) e suas 2250 tropas haviam tomado a cidade de Mérida, a apenas 60 km a leste de Badajoz. Yague tinha ordens para tomar Badajoz para ajudar a ligar suas fronteiras norte e sul e ter a área próxima à fronteira portuguesa sob seu controle.

Badajoz já foi inundada por refugiados de todas as direções de assassinatos ocorridos em ambas as cidades e no campo. Alguns ricos proprietários de terras de direita estavam até segurando dias em que eles e seus amigos iriam matar camponeses a cavalo. Assassinatos e represálias Os assassinatos foram descontrolados e generalizados. Durante três dias, Badajoz sofreu bombardeios aéreos de aviões doados às tropas nacionalistas da Itália e Alemanha. O humor da cidade era de destruição iminente.

Badajoz do ar 1936

Após o amanhecer de 14 de agosto, os nacionalistas invadiram o portão norte da cidade, Puerta de Los Carros, e o portão sul, Puerta de la Trinidad. Enquanto os republicanos conseguiam conter os soldados no portão sul, as brutais tropas mouriscas venceram no portão norte, invadindo a cidade e superando os quartéis internos. Uma batalha feia se seguiu, com os nacionalistas matando com baionetas e facas enquanto alcançavam toda a cidade. Muitas milícias republicanas desertaram para se juntar às tropas nacionalistas e muitas se renderam. Todos os que estavam à vista foram mortos ao longo do dia, mesmo quando se rendiam. Todos os dirigentes da cidade e a milícia republicana, incluindo o prefeito, deixaram a cidade no início do dia e chegaram a Portugal, abandonando o povo à morte.

As tropas nacionalistas tinham muito prazer em massacrar o maior número possível de pessoas, incluindo mulheres e crianças desarmadas. Seus líderes também haviam promovido o uso de estupro contra as mulheres como arma desde o início da guerra. Qualquer pessoa que não fosse morta imediatamente à vista era presa. Enquanto muitos foram conduzidos à praça de touros local e executados por pelotões de fuzilamento, muitos foram simplesmente mortos na rua. Estima-se que entre 1.000 e 1.800 pessoas foram executadas no primeiro dia de combate. Em uma rua principal, a Calle San Juan, cerca de 300 corpos foram deixados lá após a execução. Durante a noite e no dia seguinte, qualquer pessoa suspeita de ser um simpatizante da esquerda foi tirada de suas casas e enviada para a praça de touros para execução. Jornalistas publicaram histórias censuradas sobre o massacre, incluindo um jornalista português, que fugiu para casa com a história, recusando-se a voltar a pôr os pés em Badajoz depois de testemunhar torturas e execuções.

O verdadeiro número de mortos do massacre de Badajoz permanece desconhecido, mas estimado em algo entre 1300 e 4000 pessoas. Nenhum número oficial de mortos foi registrado. A maioria foi morta por fuzilamento ou tiros de metralhadora na praça de touros, a ponto de os prisioneiros ficarem com sangue até os tornozelos com outros corpos enquanto eram assassinados. Relatórios de mutilação foram feitos, embora o comportamento exato seja desconhecido. Foi sugerido que alguns foram mortos no estilo tourada, perseguidos e esfaqueados nas costas e depois mutilados. As tropas mouras eram bem conhecidas por sua natureza cruel e sádica. Até 10% da cidade morreu nesta batalha.

Uma das primeiras fotos do interior da praça de touros

A batalha de Badajoz deu uma das citações mais famosas da guerra & # 8217s, quando o Coronel Yague, que já havia ganhado seu apelido & # 8216Butcher of Badajoz & # 8217, disse a um jornalista americano (com muito orgulho) & # 8211 & # 8220Claro que os filmamos. O que você espera? Eu deveria levar 4.000 vermelhos comigo conforme minha coluna avançava, correndo contra o tempo? Eu deveria soltá-los na minha retaguarda e deixá-los tornar Badajoz vermelho de novo? & # 8221 Embora a batalha seja rotulada como luta durante uma guerra, muito se tem falado sobre reclassificá-la como genocídio ou crime contra a humanidade, o que certamente foi.

Na região de Badajoz, outras 2.000 pessoas foram mortas pelos soldados em marcha, a maioria agricultores. Enquanto os republicanos eram rotulados de & # 8216 vermelhos & # 8217, os nacionalistas agora eram conhecidos como o & # 8216 terror branco & # 8217. Infelizmente, este foi apenas o início de uma longa guerra civil.

Pelotão de fuzilamento contra a parede fora da praça de touros

Os dirigentes da comissão de defesa e o autarca foram encontrados em Portugal e regressaram a casa para enfrentar a execução pouco tempo depois. Esta batalha estaria longe de ser a única grande batalha de Badajoz durante a guerra. Mas esse massacre inicial ligou os elementos norte e sul dos nacionalistas, fortalecendo seu avanço no país.

Esta não é uma análise detalhada, mas sim um relatório simplificado dos acontecimentos em Badajoz. Sinta-se à vontade para sugerir uma adição / esclarecimento / correção abaixo. Todas as fotos estão vinculadas à fonte de crédito. Contra a preferência habitual, optei por adicionar as fotos do pelotão de fuzilamento, pois é um reflexo dolorosamente preciso do evento.


Filho de um médico, matriculou-se ainda jovem na Academia de Infantaria de Toledo, onde Francisco Franco foi colega cadete. Os dois homens receberam suas comissões simultaneamente e serviram juntos na África, onde Yagüe foi ferido em várias ocasiões e recebeu várias condecorações.

Yagüe foi promovido a tenente-coronel em 1932. Ele, junto com Franco e o general López Ochoa, ajudou a reprimir uma revolta de trabalhadores nas Astúrias usando regulares e legionários marroquinos em 1934. Ele foi um grande apoiador da Falange Española e amigo pessoal próximo da José Antonio Primo de Rivera.


Guerra Civil Espanhola [editar |

Quando Niceto Alcalá-Zamora foi substituído como Presidente da República pelo esquerdista Manuel Azaña em 10 de maio de 1936, um grupo de oficiais do Exército espanhol, incluindo Yagüe, Emilio Mola, Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano e José Sanjurjo, começou a conspirar para derrubar o governo da Frente Popular eleito democraticamente. Isso levou a um levante militar que precipitou a Guerra Civil Espanhola em 17 de julho de 1936.

Yagüe's forces revolted in Ceuta before crossing the Straits of Gibraltar to link up with Nationalist forces in Seville, led by Queipo de Llano. Yagüe advanced northward, first seizing Mérida before attacking Badajoz with 3,000 troops on 14 August 1936. Bitter street fighting took place when the Nationalists advanced into the city. Yagüe's forces eventually gained control of Badajoz, with both sides suffering heavy casualties.

Under Yagüe's direction hundreds of prisoners, military and civilians, were killed or executed in Badajoz, during the Badajoz massacre. Ώ] ΐ] Α] Β] Before leaving the city, Yagüe was asked by the American journalist John T. Whitaker about his reason for killing all those people (10% of the city's population) and he answered: Γ]

"Of course we shot them", he said to me. "What do you expect? Was I supposed to take 4,000 reds with me as my column advanced, racing against time? Was I expected to turn them loose in my rear and let them make Badajoz red again?"

Yagüe was then promoted to colonel and afterwards advanced on Madrid, capturing Trujillo, Navalmoral de la Mata and Talavera de la Reina, but was unable to take the capital. He took part in the Aragon Offensive and seized control of Belchite, Caspe and Lérida. He also played a leading role in the Nationalist victory at the Battle of the Ebro. In May 1938, Yagüe was removed from his command and imprisoned for injudicious remarks he made in a speech at Burgos, critical of Franco. He was back at the front within weeks.

It has been said that he was the only commander of Spanish forces that the Condor Legion respected. ⎖] [ page needed ] Yagüe never showed panic even when the enemy was close by, and was able to adjust battle plans quickly in order to suit changing circumstances (they hated Mola for his cautious approach). & # 91 citação necessária ]


Guerra civil Espanhola

When Niceto Alcalá-Zamora was replaced as President of the Republic by the left-wing Manuel Azaña on May 10, 1936, a group of Spanish Army officers, including Yagüe, Emilio Mola, Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Sanjurjo, started plotting to overthrow the democratically elected Popular Front government. This led to a military uprising which precipitated the Spanish Civil War on July 17, 1936.

Yagüe's forces revolted in Ceuta before crossing the Straits of Gibraltar to link up with Nationalist forces in Seville, led by Queipo de Llano. Yagüe advanced northward, first seizing Mérida before attacking Badajoz with 3,000 troops on August 14, 1936. Bitter street fighting took place when the Nationalists advanced into the city. Yagüe's forces eventually gained control of Badajoz, with both sides suffering heavy casualties.

Under Yagüe's direction thousands of prisoners and civilians, including women and children, were executed in Badajoz and buried in common graves, during the Badajoz massacre, in one of the biggest massacres by the Nationalists of the war. [1] [2] [3] [4] Before leaving the city, Yagüe was asked by the American journalist John T. Whitaker about his reason for killing all those people (10% of the city's population) and he answered: [5]

"Of course that we have killed them. What did you suppose? Will I take 4,000 red prisoners with my column, having to advance against the clock? Or will I leave them in my rearguard so that Badajoz will be red another time?"

Yagüe was then promoted to colonel and afterwards advanced on Madrid, capturing Trujillo, Navalmoral de la Mata and Talavera de la Reina, but was unable to take the capital. He took part in the Aragon Offensive and seized control of Belchite, Caspe and Lérida. He also played a leading role in the Nationalist victory at the Battle of the Ebro. In May 1938, Yagüe was removed from his command and imprisoned for injudicious remarks he made in a speech at Burgos, critical of Franco. He was back at the front within weeks.

It has been said that he was the only commander of Spanish forces that the Condor Legion respected. [6] [ page needed ] Yagüe never showed panic even when the enemy was close by, and was able to adjust battle plans quickly in order to suit changing circumstances (they hated Mola for his cautious approach).


Stars, Sickles, and . Tricolors? - A History of the world since 1936

I'm still relatively new to the forum, and I've finally gotten around to posting my first thread.

Before I begin, I have to give credit to the people who have inspired me to join ah.com. I've been a longtime lurker, but joined relatively recently. People like Beedok, B. Munro, Hrvatskiwi, and others have pretty much ignited my interest for alternate history. I just wanted to thank all of you guys for your awesome work.

So, like I said, this is my very first timeline, so please excuse any major errors in my posts I'm sure that there are more than a few. I intend for this to be my flagship timeline, so it will be receiving most of my time outside of college. No clue about an update schedule, but I'll try to post whenever I can. The format is supposed to be in the manner of a history textbook, although it's not exactly perfect in that regard. Anyways, without further ado, I present to you Stars, Sickles, and Tricolors.


The Flames Advance: The Spanish Civil War
August 1st, 1936- Francisco Franco winced as the Ju-52 transport entered another bout of turbulence. His was one of several transports en route to the Nationalist-held city of Seville from Morocco, transporting some of his army to the mainland for the revolution. "No," he corrected himself mentally," the Republicans would stage a revolution he was staging the liberation of his homeland from the Red menace!"
Suddenly, one of the pilots began shouting in alarm. "Enemy aircraft approaching from the northeast!" Franco glanced out the window, spotting a silvery metallic glint from several approaching planes. They could only be enemy fighters. As one plane flashed by, another passenger, a defector from the Air Force, named the threat. "Nieuports!"
As his transport began to dive to gain airspeed, Franco caught a glimpse of another Ju-52 falling in flames. Then his plane staggered, and the pilots began cursing, mirroring Franco's own string of obscenities. Franco glanced out of his window again. The right engine was in flames, and part of the wing was gone. His world tilted crazily as the plane suddenly spiraled to the left, and he was thrown against the window with a violent blow. Momentarily stunned, General Francisco Franco opened his eyes to glimpse the Spanish countryside rushing up towards him, before he and the rest of his flight of transports entered into oblivion.

The Spanish Civil War was one of several warnings the world received about the coming cataclysm, one that was looked at but ignored by the major powers. Britain and France, who both provided some aid to the Spanish Republic, sat on the sidelines for the entirety of the conflict. Meanwhile, Italy and Germany both provided the Nationalists with aid and volunteers. It was a foreshadowing of things to come.
The opening stages of the conflict, ignited by a military coup in Spanish Morocco, went quite well for the Nationalists. The Canaries, the Balearics, and Seville were all quickly secured, while the primarily conservative areas of Old Castille and Leon rose up in support of the rebels. However, the first major blow to the Nationalist cause came in early August with the death of General Francisco Franco.
He was the most widely respected leader of the rebels, and his death while en route to take command in Seville was a serious blow to the leadership of the Nationalists. With his death, the choice of his successor became a contentious issue among the various groups of the Nationalist cause. The Falangists preferred General Juan Yague, while the Alfonsists supported Marshal Jose Sanjurjo. This split led to severe mistrust among the Nationalists, and cost them the critical initiative in the early days of the war.
In the end, a compromise was worked out: Sanjurjo would oversee the critical southern theater, while Yague would command the northern theater. This compromise was worked out due to the ongoing battle near Seville. Immediately after its conclusion, Sanjurjo took command and repulsed the Republican offensive. Up north, Nationalist forces managed to link up near Gijon before laying siege to the Republican bastion of Bilbao. Bilbao managed to hold out for two months, before the Republicans staged a breakout and retreated north to the town of Guernica. Meanwhile, the fighting going on in close proximity to their southern border deeply concerned the French. When a few stray artillery shells landed in the border village of Hendaye, the French government acted it shifted its policy from verbal to physical support of the Republicans. The first shipments of Dewoitine D.500 and D.501 fighters began arriving in January of 1937. The British were not idle either they began shipping arms and supplies to the Republic in March of 1937. The ranks of volunteers who began trickling in, not only from France and Britain but also the Soviet Union and United States gave the Republic fresh soldiers and new expertise to combat the uprisings.
The Nationalists were also recipients of foreign aid, although to a slightly lesser extent than the Republicans. Both German and Italian volunteers arrived soon after the outbreak of hostilities, the most famous of which were two aerial squadrons, the Condor Legion and the Aviazione Legionaria, from Germany and Italy respectively. Although these volunteers fought valiantly, by the end of 1937 it was clear that their cause was doomed.
While their initial thrust at Seville had been repulsed, the Republicans had managed to regroup and establish a line of defense stretching in an arc from Malaga to Cordoba and Barracota. In the north, naval support as well as a steady stream of foreign supplies kept the Republicans in control of the coast from Portagulete to San Sebastian. In April of 1937, the Republicans launched their first major offensive, aimed at retaking Bilbao. With new Soviet-made 'Rata' fighters, tearing through the surprised Nationalists, the Republicans smashed resistance outside of Guernica after a week of heavy fighting. Bilbao was then retaken with relatively light losses. In southern Castille, the Nationalists were agian routed near Segovia, pushed back further from Madrid. In the heat of June, the fighting picked up in intensity. The Republican army was nearly obliterated near Vitoria. However, the public execution of nearly 100 Basque civilians by the Nationalists turned the Basque against them, and the Nationalists were unable to seize the moment.
In the south, the war turned into a near-stalemate reminiscent of World War One, with neither side making much progress until late in the year. On October 31st, the Republicans pulled off a near-miraculous breakthrough along the Genil River, advancing halfway to Seville. Seville itself fell to the Republicans in late November. Disheartened, the Nationalists pulled back towards Cadiz, where they were holed up for the rest of the war.
After the success of the Winter Offensive, the Republicans prepared a final attack to end the Civil War. Beginning on March 5th, the Republicans used Soviet tanks to advance nearly 60 miles, moving their artillery within range of the provisional Nationalist capital of Burgos. After weeks of shelling, Burgos surrendered on May 17th. The surrender convinced many Nationalists to lay down their arms. By the end of the month, the fighting was officially over.
Internationally, the end of the Spanish Civil War received little attention, as the world was focused on the ongoing crisis over Sudetenland, and the Japanese advances in China. However, one nation which moved to take advantage was the Soviet Union. A significant leftist movement had been present in Spain before the civil war, and the polarization of the nation led to further leftist sympathies in the Republican government. Some of the more radical leftists, such as communists and socialists, called for the establishment of a Spanish Soviet Republic based upon the Russian example, a call eagerly supported by the Soviet Union.
However, instead of moving his nation into a full-blown communist regime, President Manuel Azana instead sought a compromise to solve the issues which had caused the Civil War. He managed to push through several economic reforms which were acceptable to both conservatives and liberals. Seen as a stab in the back to the Popular Front which had elected him, Azana's former backers split along ideological lines. The Communists, Socialists, Republicans, and several splinter groups all went their separate ways. In saving the Republic, President Azana had inadvertently guaranteed civil turmoil for years to come.

BlueEagle21

Hello again
Sorry for the double post, but I have just finished another update, and I wanted to send it out before it got lost in the clutter on my computer.

The Sleeping Giant: America Prior to World War Two

Before its entry into the Second World War, the United States still suffered from the lingering effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. However, unemployment continued to fall, dipping below 17% in the spring of 1936. The New Deal's various programs continued to slowly but surely drag America out of the Depression. In May of 1936, the Rural Electrification Act was passed, and electric power began making inroads to rural America.

The Popularity of the New Deal and its positive effects on the American economy led to the reelection of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the presidency in November. America's international prestige rose as well, when famed aviator Amelia Earhart completed her circumnavigation of the globe in 1937.

The latter half of the 1930's was also characterized by an increase in tensions between labor unions and businesses. In particular, the Memorial Day Massacre of 1937 highlighted the polarization between the two groups. However, President Roosevelt refused to intervene, preferring for the two groups to amicable settle their differences. In 1938, the American worker won his victory with the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set a minimum wage as well as a maximum number of work hours per week.

During this same time period, the American military received increasing investment from a government concerned with the expansion of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Army began modernizing its outdated equipment. The Navy received two new fleet carriers, while construction on several new battleships and cruisers began. Also, new research into tanks began this work would lead directly to the famous M3 Lee tank of the early war years. After the start of the war in Europe, the Neutrality Acts were amended to allow military aid to be sent to several Allied nations, using a 'cash and carry' policy. After the fall of France and L'Exode, the Naval Expansion Act was signed into law it authorized a further three fleet carriers, several new battleships of the North Carolina, Iowa, and Montana classes, and numerous cruisers and smaller vessels.

In 1940, President Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term in office. He continued his previous policies of past years, while also introducing a new concept that would keep the struggling Allies afloat: Lend-Lease. The Lend-Lease Act was passed in March 1941, authorizing direct military aid to be sent to Britain and the French. later, the act would be amended to allow China and the Soviet Union to receive aid as well.

Ever since the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in the fall of 1939, the United States had tried to steer a neutral course and keep out the casualties and horrors of the First World War were still fresh in the minds of many. However, just a few months into the war, this attitude began to change. The Iron Annie Incident, which occurred in December of 1939, led to increasing American hostility towards the Nazi regime and the Axis cause in general. The casualties inflicted upon civilians by the German battle-cruiser Graf Spee angered many, but it was still not enough to convince many Americans that intervention was necessary. This attitude of hostile neutrality ruled for two years, but it all changed on December 7th, 1941.

The attack on Pearl Harbor sparked a massive sense of rage in the American psyche, one rarely seen in the nation's history. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans desired vengeance not only against Japan, but Germany as well, in return for the loss of the Iron Annie and the Nourmahal. This tremendous sense of outrage led to the unanimous declaration of war on Japan the next day, after an impassioned speech before Congress by President Roosevelt. This speech, immortalized as the 'Day of Infamy' speech, has gone down in history as one of the greatest American oratories of the century. Congress was spared having to vote for war with Germany, however Adolf Hitler personally announced his nation's declaration of war against the Unite States on December 11th. Now the United States was in the fight, a war like none seen before in human history.

Zeppelinair

BlueEagle21

Avernite

BlueEagle21

Next update is ready. The first three parts are more or less OTL, the final portion is the major divergence.


The Invasion of Poland (September 1939)
In the early hours of September 1st, 1939, Germany launched its invasion of Poland, and in doing so inaugurated the Second World War. The Germans enjoyed not only technological superiority, but also numerical and tactical superiority, which they employed to great success.
After wiping out the small Polish Air Force, the Germans concentrated all of their efforts on advancing eastwards. Army Group North, under General von Bock, cut off the Polish Corridor within three days of the beginning of hostilities. In particular, General Heinz Guderian's panzers distinguished themselves by advancing the front hours, sometimes even days ahead of schedule. By the end of the first week, Krakow had fallen to the 14th Army, while 3rd Army pressed on to Warsaw. By the 15th of September, Warsaw had been surrounded by elements of 3rd Army and 8th Army. Two days later, any hopes of a Polish recovery were dealt a mortal blow when the Soviet Army crossed the eastern border. Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on September 28th, and the last armed resistance ended on October 2nd. This was a dark omen for the future of Europe, as many more nations would be subsumed by the Nazi advance before the war's end.

The Winter War (November 1939-March 1940)
Before the beginning of the war, the Soviets had already shown some interest in Finland negotiations for a lease on the port of Hanko had fallen through, mostly due to Finnish fears of further Soviet demands. In November, after the official division of Poland with Germany, Soviet troops crossed the border into Finland to take the claims by force.
The Finns were outnumbered and outgunned, but what they lacked in numbers and armaments they more than made up for in determination and ferocity. They were also gifted by a talented commander, Marshal Carl von Mannerheim. Mannerheim had already directed the construction of a defensive line in Karelia, a line which held for most of the war. U north, the initial Soviet offensive managed to cut off and capture Petsamo, while advancing towards the village of Khumo in central Finland. However, after the first week the war devolved into a near stalemate, with the Soviets occasionally managing to advance a few miles in exchange for heavy casualties.
In February, a new offensive was begun under a restructured Soviet leadership. The Finn's defensive line in Karelia wasn't breached for over a week, but the Soviets penetrated deep into central Finland, capturing Suomussalmi, Nurmes, and Iisalmi. This breakdown of defense, along with the eventual penetration of the 'Mannerheim Line', led Marshal Mannerheim to recommend his government engage in peace negotiations. On March 12, 1940, the Treaty of Moscow was signed. The Finns ceded Hanko, the Karelian Isthmus, and Petsamo to the Soviets.

Escandinávia (April-May 1940)
In order to fuel her rapid expansion, Germany needed raw materials, of which the iron ore form neutral Sweden was absolutely vital. In order to secure their supply of Swedish iron, Germany needed to secure the Norwegian port of Narvik as well as the Danish-controlled Skagerrak Straits. In order to secure the latter, Germany invaded the nation of Denmark on April 9th, with only small resistance in the southern part of the small kingdom. The Danish Navy stood aside, allowing the Germans to capture Copenhagen. Before noon, the Danish government had ordered a ceasefire and surrendered to Germany.
At the same time, another German force had set sail for Norway, landing at Oslo, Stavanger, Narvik, and Kristiansand. The Norwegian defenders fought valiantly, but were overwhelmed and pushed into the countryside. The only significant casualty the Germans suffered was the cruiser Blucher, sunk by artillery fire near Oslo.
After being expelled from the coast, the government retreated to the interior of the country, and initiated a plan of fighting retreats to allow Allied assistance to arrive. And arrive it did the British Expeditionary Force landed at Narvik, securing the port and establishing a defensive perimeter. However, the German advance into the Low Countries and France forced the British to withdraw in order to reinforce their French allies. With the withdrawal of the British, the Norwegian government, led by King Haakon VII, fled to London. The few defenders left in Narvik were unable to do little more than hold off the Germans long enough for the evacuation to be completed. This near defeat in Norway also led to political change in Britain Prime Minister Chamberlain was ousted by a vote of no confidence, being replaced by Winston Churchill and a coalition government.
Perhaps the most famous Allied casualty of the Norwegian campaign was the destroyer Glowworm. She engaged the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, heavily damaging her before sinking. Hipper herself was sunk just a few days later, with few survivors, by aircraft from the Royal Navy carrier HMS Glorious.

Blitzkrieg in the West (May-June 1940)
After many months of preparation during the Phoney War, or 'Sitzkrieg', during the winter and spring of 1939-1940, Germany launched her strike at the West. Rightly predicting that the Allies expected an offensive through Belgium and northern France, General Erich von Manstein prepared an offensive through the Ardennes Forest, supported by a diversionary strike through the Netherlands and central Belgium to divert the Allied forces. The main offensive was to be spearheaded by General Guderian's panzers. General von Bock was given command of the attacks on the Netherlands and Belgium, while General von Rundstedt would lead the main offensive. Meanwhile, General von Leeb's forces would distract the defenders of the Maginot Line.
On May 10th, gliders filled with engineers and paratroopers began landing in southern Holland and eastern Belgium. They quickly secured vital bridges over the area's canals and rivers by the end of the day, panzers had arrived from the border,reinforcing the bridgeheads. The trap was now set for the Allies.
The Allies followed the German expectations to a T, moving northwards towards the Belgian-Dutch border. Quick to exploit the opportunity, von Rundstedt's army poured through the Ardennes, with little resistance. By dawn on May 13th, the German Army had penetrated as far as Sedan, when General Guderian's forces began crossing the Meuse. Opposing him was the French Second Army, under General Huntziger. Despite putting up a tenacious defense, the confusion generated by the German attacks and a continuous aerial bombardment forced the French into a fighting retreat. Here, the Germans turned west, towards the English Channel, intending to cut off the main Allied army from the rest of France. During their push to the Channel, the only significant counteroffensive was a minor attack near the town of Compiegne, led by young Colonel Charles de Gaulle. However, this attack had no significant effect on the German advance, and on May 19th they reached the Channel.
Trapped in a shrinking pocket, the Allies attempted a counterattack on May 24th, achieving moderate success before losing all their gains and more the next day. However, the rapid German advance turned out to be a blessing in disguise: the panzers were forced to halt and wait for fuel convoys to catch up, delaying their advance by over 24 hours. This allowed the Allies to launch Operation Dynamo, the largest evacuation of troops ever undertaken. All available vessels in southern England, military and civilian, were sent south to the beaches near Dunkirk, and crammed with soldiers and other refugees to offload in southern Britain. Over the next eight days, nearly 340,000 troops were transported to Britain, a testament to the determination and selflessness of hundreds of brave volunteer boats and their crews. However, a fair amount of the Allies' equipment had to be left behind in and around Dunkirk.
Soon after Operation Dynamo, Belgium surrendered to Germany. This, and the capitulation of the Dutch a few days later, allowed the Germans to focus all of their attention onto France. The French attempted to form a defensive line along the Somme and Aisne Rivers, but this was broken on June 10th. On June 14th, the Germans entered Paris, which had been declared an open city and was thus spared aerial and artillery attack.
On the same day that the Germans had broken through on the Somme, the French government under Paul Reynaud had left Paris for Tours from there, they moved to Marseilles. Following them was a vast column of refugees and soldiers. The German capture of Paris split the French government into two camps: those who favored continuing the war, led by Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, and those who sought an armistice with the Germans, led by Great War hero Philippe Petain. In the end, the peace faction was overruled, and the French government left for Algiers on June 22nd. However, on the 30th Marshal Petain and a small group of delegates requested a ceasefire with the Germans, effectively ending the war on French soil.
The relocation of the French government to Algiers, termed L'Exode, marked a major shift in the war now Britain was the only power left capable of standing up to the Germans. However, the majority of the French armed forces stayed loyal to the government in Algiers, and continued to fight for the Allied cause. The French Navy, under Admiral Darlan, remained entirely under Allied control even the incomplete battleship Richelieu was towed to Oran and completed there over the next two years.
Although few organized and intact elements of the French army managed to escape in L'Exode, enough small units and individuals made it to North Africa to form the core of the new Army of North Africa. A further fourteen divisions were raised and added to the Army, made up of garrison troops, units from sub-Saharan Africa, and locals. The Army of North Africa was also lacking in armor, a side effect of the few transports available for tanks and armored cars however, enough made it that four battalions were organized, with a few extras spread out as infantry support.
Now, the war entered its most precarious phase. The conflict stood on a knife-edge, easily falling to the Axis or Allies. Both sides faced a tough fight, but now it seemed that Britain itself was in mortal danger.


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Formatos de download
Identificador Persistente de Catálogo
Citação APA

Garriga, Ramon. (1985). El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia. Barcelona, Espana : Planeta

Citação MLA

Garriga, Ramon. El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga Planeta Barcelona, Espana 1985

Citação australiana / Harvard

Garriga, Ramon. 1985, El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga Planeta Barcelona, Espana

Wikipedia Citation
El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga
000 01031cam a2200337 a 4500
001 482462
005 20180920201149.0
008 860313s1985 sp acf 001 0bspa
010 | a85214636
019 1 | a4392721
020 | a8432043524
035 |9(AuCNLDY)898365
035 | a482462
040 | aLC | beng | cLC | dXNTU
043 | ae-sp---
050 0 0 | aDP236.Y3 | bG36 1985
082 0 0 | a946.081/092/4 |219
082 0 0 | aB |219
100 1 | aGarriga, Ramon.
245 1 3 | aEl general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / | cRamon Garriga.
250 | a1a ed.
260 | aBarcelona, Espana : | bPlaneta, | c1985.
300 | a282 pages, [24] pages of plates : | billustrations, portraits | c22 cm.
490 0 | aDocumento |v168
500 | aInclui índice.
600 1 0 | aYague, Juan, | d1891-1952.
610 1 0 | aEspanha. | bEjercito | xBiografia.
650 0 | aGenerals | zEspanha | xBiografia.
651 0 | aEspanha | xHistória |yCivil War, 1936-1939.
651 0 | aEspanha | xHistória |y1939-1975.
984 | aANL | c946.0810924 Y12G

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