A história

Anne Knight


Anne Knight, filha do terceiro dos oito filhos do dono da mercearia, William Knight (1786-1862), nasceu em Chelmsford em 2 de novembro de 1781. A mãe de Anne era Priscilla Allen Knight (1753-1829), filha de William Allen, um conhecido radical e não-conformista. A família Knight era membro da Sociedade de Amigos e era pacifista e reformadora social. (1)

Anne tornou-se ativa na luta contra a escravidão e tornou-se amiga íntima de Elizabeth Heyrick. Durante o início da década de 1820, trocaram folhetos sobre reforma social. Ambos favoreciam a abolição imediata do comércio de escravos, em vez de gradual. (2)

Em 1824, Heyrick publicou seu panfleto Abolição Imediata, não Gradual. Em seu panfleto, Heyrick argumentou apaixonadamente a favor da emancipação imediata dos escravos nas colônias britânicas. Isso diferia da política oficial da Sociedade Antiescravidão, que acreditava na abolição gradual. Ela chamou isso de "a própria obra-prima da política satânica" e pediu um boicote ao açúcar produzido nas plantações de escravos. (3)

No panfleto, Heyrick atacou as "medidas lentas, cautelosas e acomodatícias" dos líderes. "A perpetuação da escravidão em nossas colônias das Índias Ocidentais não é uma questão abstrata, a ser resolvida entre o governo e os fazendeiros; é uma questão em que todos estamos envolvidos, todos somos culpados de apoiar e perpetuar a escravidão. O fazendeiro das Índias Ocidentais e as pessoas deste país têm a mesma relação moral umas com as outras que o ladrão e o recebedor de bens roubados ". (4)

A liderança da organização tentou suprimir informações sobre a existência deste panfleto e William Wilberforce deu instruções para os líderes do movimento não falarem nas sociedades antiescravistas femininas. Seu biógrafo, William Hague, afirma que Wilberforce foi incapaz de se ajustar à ideia de as mulheres se envolverem na política "ocorrendo como aconteceu quase um século antes que as mulheres pudessem votar na Grã-Bretanha". (5)

George Stephen discordou de Wilberforce nesta questão e afirmou que sua energia era vital para o sucesso do movimento: "As associações de senhoras faziam tudo ... Elas distribuíam publicações; elas obtinham o dinheiro para publicar; elas conversavam, persuadiam e ensinavam: elas conseguiam até reuniões públicas e encheram nossos corredores e plataformas quando o dia chegou; eles carregaram petições e cumpriram o dever de assiná-las ... Em uma palavra eles formaram o cimento de todo o edifício antiescravista - sem a ajuda deles nunca teríamos continuou de pé. " (6)

Em 8 de abril de 1825, Lucy Townsend realizou uma reunião em sua casa para discutir a questão do papel das mulheres no movimento anti-escravidão. Townsend, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Sarah Wedgwood, Sophia Sturge e as outras mulheres na reunião decidiram formar a Sociedade de Senhoras de Birmingham para o Socorro de Escravos Negros (mais tarde o grupo mudou seu nome para Sociedade Feminina de Birmingham). (7) O grupo "promoveu o boicote ao açúcar, visando tanto as lojas quanto os compradores, visitando milhares de casas e distribuindo panfletos, convocando reuniões e elaborando petições". (8)

A sociedade que foi, desde a sua fundação, independente tanto da Sociedade Nacional Antiescravagista quanto da sociedade antiescravista masculina local. Como Clare Midgley apontou: "Ele agia como o centro de uma rede nacional em desenvolvimento de sociedades femininas antiescravistas, ao invés de uma auxiliar local. Também tinha importantes conexões internacionais e publicidade de suas atividades no periódico abolicionista de Benjamin Lundy O Gênio da Emancipação Universal influenciou a formação das primeiras sociedades femininas antiescravistas na América ". (9)

Anne Knight foi inspirada pela Sociedade de Senhoras de Birmingham para o Socorro de Escravos Negros para formar uma organização semelhante em Chelmsford. Outros grupos foram estabelecidos em Nottingham (Ann Taylor Gilbert), Sheffield (Mary Anne Rawson, Mary Roberts), Leicester (Elizabeth Heyrick, Susanna Watts), Glasgow (Jane Smeal), Norwich (Amelia Opie, Anna Gurney), Londres (Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, Mary Foster) e Darlington (Elizabeth Pease). Em 1831, havia setenta e três dessas organizações de mulheres em campanha contra a escravidão. (10)

No início de 1833, Anne Knight juntou forças com a Sociedade Antiescravidão Feminina de Londres para organizar uma petição nacional de mulheres contra a escravidão. Quando foi apresentado ao Parlamento, foi assinado por 298.785 mulheres. Foi a maior petição antiescravista da história do movimento. (11)

A Lei de Abolição da Escravidão foi aprovada em 28 de agosto de 1833. Esta lei deu a todos os escravos do Império Britânico sua liberdade. O governo britânico pagou £ 20 milhões em compensação aos proprietários de escravos. A quantia que os donos das plantações recebiam dependia do número de escravos que eles possuíam. Por exemplo, Henry Phillpotts, o bispo de Exeter, recebeu £ 12.700 pelos 665 escravos que possuía. (12)

Em 1834, Anne Knight viajou pela França, onde deu palestras sobre a imoralidade da escravidão. Knight defendeu a abolição imediata da escravidão sem compensação no resto da Europa. Mais tarde, sua contribuição para a campanha anti-escravidão foi reconhecida quando uma vila para escravos libertos jamaicanos foi chamada Knightsville. Ela também era ativa na Sociedade Antiescravidão Britânica e Estrangeira. (13)

Anne Knight participou da Convenção Mundial Antiescravidão realizada em Exeter Hall, em Londres, em junho de 1840, mas, como mulher, foi-lhe recusada a permissão para falar. Ela conheceu duas delegadas americanas Elizabeth Cady Stanton e Lucretia Mott. Stanton lembrou mais tarde: "Resolvemos realizar uma convenção assim que voltássemos para casa e formar uma sociedade para defender os direitos das mulheres." (14) Mott descreveu Knight como "uma mulher de aparência singular - muito agradável e educada". (15)

Ela ficou sabendo que o artista, Benjamin Robert Haydon, havia começado um retrato coletivo dos envolvidos na luta contra a escravidão. Ela escreveu uma carta para Lucy Townsend reclamando da falta de mulheres na pintura. "Estou muito ansioso para que o quadro histórico agora nas mãos de Haydon não seja representado sem que a principal senhora da história esteja lá, em justiça à história e à posteridade, a pessoa que estabeleceu (grupos femininos antiescravistas). Você tem o mesmo direito de estar lá como o próprio Thomas Clarkson, ou melhor, talvez mais, sua conquista foi no comércio de escravos; a sua própria escravidão foi o movimento que permeia. " (16)

Quando a pintura foi concluída, não incluiu Lucy Townsend ou a maioria das principais ativistas femininas contra a escravidão. Clare Midgley, autora de Mulheres contra a escravidão (1995) aponta que, assim como Anne Knight e Lucretia Mott, ele apresenta Elizabeth Pease, Mary Anne Rawson, Amelia Opie e Annabella Byron: "O retrato do grupo de Haydon é excepcional por registrar a existência de mulheres ativistas. Muitos outros memoriais não. Não há monumentos públicos a mulheres ativistas para complementar aqueles a William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson e outros líderes masculinos do movimento ... Nas memórias escritas desses homens, as mulheres tendem a aparecer como esposas e mães prestativas e inspiradoras e filhas, em vez de ativistas por direito próprio. " (17)

Marion Reid publicado Um apelo pelas mulheres em 1843. Knight estava grato por ela ter defendido uma maior igualdade, mas pensou que a autora não havia estimado as habilidades das mulheres. Knight escreveu em seu próprio exemplar do livro que era "excelente, com exceção da grande loucura", em que ela disse que as mulheres enfrentam barreiras naturais. Knight reclamou que as mulheres não tinham barreiras naturais "mas aquelas colocadas igualmente antes dos homens". (18)

O comportamento dos líderes homens na Convenção Mundial Antiescravidão inspirou Knight a iniciar uma campanha defendendo os direitos iguais para as mulheres. (19) Isso incluía a impressão de etiquetas coladas com citações feministas que ela anexava do lado de fora de suas cartas. Em 1847, ela escreveu uma carta para Matilda Ashurst Biggs sobre o assunto da igualdade de gênero. Mais tarde naquele ano, a carta foi publicada e é considerada o primeiro folheto sobre o sufrágio feminino. (20)

Knight escreveu: "Desejo que os filantropos talentosos na Inglaterra se apresentem nesta conjuntura crítica dos assuntos de nossa nação e insistem no direito de sufrágio para todos os homens e mulheres imaculados pelo crime ... para que todos possam ter voz no assuntos de seu país ... Nunca as nações da terra serão bem governadas até que ambos os sexos, bem como todas as partes, estejam totalmente representados e tenham uma influência, uma voz e uma mão na promulgação e administração das leis . " (21)

Knight também se tornou ativo no movimento cartista. No entanto, ela ficou preocupada com a maneira como as mulheres ativistas eram tratadas por alguns dos líderes homens da organização. Ela os criticou por alegar "que a luta de classes tem precedência sobre os direitos das mulheres". (22) Knight escreveu "pode ​​um homem ser livre, se uma mulher for uma escrava." (23) Em carta publicada no Brighton Herald em 1850, ela exigiu que os cartistas fizessem campanha pelo que ela descreveu como "verdadeiro sufrágio universal". (24)

Um folheto anônimo foi publicado em 1847. Argumentou-se de forma persuasiva que a autora da obra era Anne Knight. No argumento: "Nunca as nações da terra serão bem governadas, até que ambos os sexos, bem como todas as partes, estejam totalmente representados e tenham uma influência, uma voz e uma mão na promulgação e administração das leis". (25)

Knight também se envolveu na política internacional. Em 1848, ela foi o primeiro governo francês eleito por sufrágio universal masculino que reprimiu a liberdade de associação. O decreto proibia as mulheres de formar clubes ou participar de reuniões de associações. Knight publicou um panfleto criticando esta ação: "Ai, meu irmão, então é verdade que tua voz eloquente foi ouvida no seio da Assembleia Nacional expressando um sentimento tão contrário ao republicanismo real? Será que tu realmente não protestaste apenas contra os direitos das mulheres de formarem clubes, mas também contra seu direito de frequentar clubes formados por homens? " (25a)

Em uma conferência sobre paz mundial realizada em 1849, Anne Knight conheceu dois dos reformadores britânicos, Henry Brougham e Richard Cobden. Ela ficou decepcionada com a falta de entusiasmo pelos direitos das mulheres. Nos meses seguintes, ela enviou-lhes várias cartas defendendo a causa do sufrágio feminino. Em uma carta a Cobden, ela argumentou que somente quando as mulheres tivessem direito ao voto o eleitorado seria capaz de pressionar os políticos a alcançar a paz mundial. (26)

Anne Knight e Anne Kent estabeleceram a Sheffield Female Political Association. Sua primeira reunião foi realizada em Sheffield em fevereiro de 1851. Mais tarde naquele ano, publicou um "Discurso às Mulheres da Inglaterra". Esta foi a primeira petição na Inglaterra que exigia o sufrágio feminino. Foi apresentado à Câmara dos Lordes por George Howard, 7º Conde de Carlisle. (27) No ano seguinte, ela foi "proibida de votar no homem que impõe as leis que sou obrigado a obedecer - os impostos que sou obrigado a pagar". Ela acrescentou que "tributação sem representação é tirania". (28)

Anne Knight, que nunca se casou, passou os últimos anos de sua vida em Waldersbach, um pequeno vilarejo a sudoeste de Estrasburgo, onde morava na antiga casa do pastor Jean-Frédéric Oberlin (1740-1826), fundador do Movimento Socialista Cristão na França e um homem que ela admirava muito. Anne Knight morreu em 4 de novembro de 1862. (29)

Ai, meu irmão, então é verdade que tua voz eloqüente foi ouvida no seio da Assembleia Nacional expressando um sentimento tão contrário ao verdadeiro republicanismo? Será que você realmente protestou não apenas contra os direitos das mulheres de formar clubes, mas também contra seu direito de frequentar clubes formados por homens? Tudo isso é verdade?

É possível que tu, um ministro da religião, falaste uma língua tão contrária aos mandamentos de teu "Divino Mestre", pois assim te ouvi chamá-lo. Este divino Mestre disse: "Faça aos outros o que você gostaria que fizessem a você." Bem então! Você gostaria se fosse proibido de realizar reuniões e defender suas opiniões lá?

Oh! reflita em tuas palavras. Que acontecimentos terríveis aconteceram desde a carta que te escrevi [em abril] solicitando que colocasse tua mente e tua voz a serviço da emancipação das mulheres. Lembra-se do que disse M. Legouvé em uma de suas aulas sobre a primeira revolução? "Falhou", disse ele, "porque era injusto com as mulheres." Então pense nisto: poderiam os horríveis massacres que ocorreram há poucos dias ter ocorrido se os cidadãos, menos preocupados com seus próprios interesses egoístas, tivessem proclamado a liberdade para todos os homens e todas as mulheres? Você estaria vivendo em estado de sítio? Ah! não. Você sabe muito bem que se uma mulher tivesse se sentado nos conselhos ao lado do homem, esses eventos horríveis nunca teriam ocorrido. Com a clarividência e o sentimento de justiça que comove as mulheres, teriam se oposto a tais medidas, que desde o início previram que teriam consequências tão terríveis. Enquanto essa grande injustiça contra as mulheres persistir, a miséria e a insurreição persistirão.

Apresse-se então, eu imploro, em nome de sua amada pátria, e também em nome de meu país, pobre Inglaterra! Exigir que as mulheres deserdadas da nação sejam reintegradas aos direitos das mulheres dos gauleses, direitos que não foram negados aos meus ancestrais anglo-saxões em 1515, se quisermos acreditar na história. Jogue fora este terrível jugo de preconceito; sobe os degraus desta tribuna, eu te imploro, vestido com a armadura dos justos, como um guerreiro cristão! Protesto em nome dos direitos da humanidade, sem distinção de vestimenta ...

Sai da retirada, para que todos os devotos possam ouvi-lo e, seguindo o exemplo do nobre arcebispo de Paris, monte as barricadas, proclame a lei da paz, prepare a felicidade de sua nação e, portanto, da terra. Então você terá hasteado a verdadeira bandeira tricolor destinada a circundar o mundo com seu slogan: Liberdade, igualdade, fraternidade - justiça, compaixão e verdade.

Eu gostaria que os filantropos talentosos na Inglaterra se apresentassem nesta conjuntura crítica dos assuntos de nossa nação e insistissem no direito de sufrágio para todos os homens e mulheres imaculados pelo crime ... Nunca as nações da terra serão bem governadas até ambos os sexos, assim como todas as partes, são totalmente representadas e têm influência, voz e participação na promulgação e administração das leis.

É justiça o que exigimos para todos os que assumem a sua parte nos fardos do Estado e que não pagam impostos neste país de miséria tributária? Está isenta de quem cabe trabalhar 18 horas em cada 24, dormir pouco e estar muito desgastada pelo trabalho de parto para pensar.

Simulação de trabalho infantil (notas do professor)

Richard Arkwright e o Sistema de Fábrica (resposta ao comentário)

Robert Owen e New Lanark (resposta ao comentário)

James Watt e Steam Power (resposta ao comentário)

O sistema doméstico (resposta ao comentário)

The Luddites: 1775-1825 (resposta ao comentário)

A situação dos tecelões de teares manuais (comentário da resposta)

Transporte rodoviário e a revolução industrial (resposta ao comentário)

Desenvolvimento inicial das ferrovias (resposta ao comentário)

(1) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(2) Clare Midgley, Mulheres contra a escravidão (1995) página 58

(3) Stephen Tomkins, William Wilberforce (2007) página 206

(4) Elizabeth Heyrick, Abolição Imediata, não Gradual (1824)

(5) William Hague, William Wilberforce: a vida do grande ativista do comércio anti-escravos (2008) página 487

(6) George Stephen, carta para Anne Knight (14 de novembro de 1834)

(7) Adam Hochschild, Enterre as correntes: a luta britânica para abolir a escravidão (2005) página 326

(8) Stephen Tomkins, William Wilberforce (2007) página 208

(9) Clare Midgley, Lucy Townsend: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(10) Richard Reddie, Abolição! A luta para abolir a escravidão nas colônias britânicas (2007) página 214

(11) Clare Midgley, Mulheres contra a escravidão (1995) página 58

(12) Jack Gratus, A Grande Mentira Branca (1973) página 240

(13) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(14) Crista Deluzio, Direitos da Mulher: Pessoas e Perspectivas (2009) página 58

(15) Elizabeth Crawford, O Movimento pelo Sufrágio Feminino: Um Guia de Referência 1866-1928 (2000) página 327

(16) Anne Knight, carta para Lucy Townsend (20 de setembro de 1840)

(17) Clare Midgley, Mulheres contra a escravidão (1995) página 2

(18) Elizabeth Crawford, O Movimento pelo Sufrágio Feminino: Um Guia de Referência 1866-1928 (2000) página 327

(19) Elizabeth J. Clapp, Mulheres, dissidência e antiescravidão na Grã-Bretanha e na América, 1790-1865 (2015) página 67

(20) Dale Spender, Mulheres de Idéias (1982) página 398

(21) Anne Knight, carta para Matilda Ashurst Biggs (abril de 1847)

(22) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(23) Elizabeth Crawford, O Movimento pelo Sufrágio Feminino: Um Guia de Referência 1866-1928 (2000) página 327

(24) Anne Knight, carta publicada no Brighton Herald (9 de fevereiro de 1850)

(25) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(26) Anne Knight, Para o pastor Coquerel (1848)

(27) Ray Strachey, A causa (1928) página 43

(28) Anne Knight, carta para Richard Cobden (13 de agosto de 1850)

(29) Elizabeth Crawford, O Movimento pelo Sufrágio Feminino: Um Guia de Referência 1866-1928 (2000) página 327

(30) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)


Anne Knight Ruff

Anne Knight Ruff& # 8216s interpretação charmosa e colorida do Vista de 1890 da Bank Avenue serve como uma alegre recepção ao nosso Artistas Locais página.

Um artigo do Burlington County Times de janeiro de 1983 explica como ela criou uma & # 8220Society of Friends & # 8221 com pés de garra de banheira de ferro fundido recuperados e os deu de presente.

Na verdade, o meio de escolha para sua expressão artística muitas vezes era argila local, objetos encontrados e materiais reciclados, como madeira recuperada e móveis de segunda mão.

Conhecida por suas amigas como “Bay” Ruff, aos 81 anos ela escreveu um livro de histórias sobre crescer em Riverton que surgiu das reuniões semanais das Friday Ladies, um grupo do qual foi convidada a participar.

Seu livro de 256 páginas encadernado captura dias passados ​​de Riverton, sua casa por mais de 80 anos. Não é preciso ser de Riverton para se divertir e se divertir com essa coleção de breves ensaios organizados por etapas de sua vida.

Contada contra o pano de fundo da vida em nosso bairro único, suas reflexões perspicazes sobre amigos, conhecidos, parentes e um amor ao longo da vida por natação, feito enquanto ela lidava com deficiência auditiva e manutenção doméstica informam a mente e tocam o espírito.

Leia mais detalhes sobre a vida de Anne Knight Ruff e como o livro surgiu neste ano de 2002 New York Times entrevista por Jill P. Capuzzo: “EM PESSOA, uma contadora de histórias nascida, ela levou seu tempo”

William Probsting escreveu um perfil maravilhoso de Anne Knight Ruff, que apareceu no Programa Riverton de 4 de julho de 2002, quando a cidade a homenageou como Marechal do Desfile.

Quando ela faleceu em 2013, muitos compareceram ao seu Memorial Service no Westfield Friends Meeting. Amigos e familiares que receberam muitas das obras de arte da Sra. Ruff ao longo dos anos as trouxeram para exibir durante o culto.


Recapitulação da reunião HSR de fevereiro de 2011

Parabéns pelo lançamento bem-sucedido do novo site da Sociedade Histórica de Riverton. Nossos agradecimentos vão para a equipe de desenvolvimento do site liderada por John McCormick e Solins & # 8211 Mike e Pat.

Os membros da Sociedade ficaram maravilhados com o rico conteúdo e belos slides estéreo e imagens de cartão-postal da vida na década de 1920. O blog de John McCormick é uma perspectiva nova e informativa sobre Riverton, seu povo e estruturas históricas.

Obrigado aos muitos membros da Sociedade e amigos que compartilharam suas imagens no site.

O Dr. Cliff Johnson compareceu à reunião da Sociedade para ouvir a história oral de Francis Cole, cuja família era proprietária da Cole Dairy na 501 Main Street em Riverton. O Dr. Johnson, que nasceu em 1920 e viveu nas áreas de Riverton-Palmyra desde os três anos de idade, comentou esta noite: "Eu fui para a escola com a garota que pintou seu mastro - Anne Knight Ruff", e continuou para identificar os membros do Departamento de Polícia de Palmyra durante a Depressão, quando o Chefe de Polícia Maurice Beck e o patrulheiro Bucky Wallace lideraram a força.

Dr. Johnson é o pai da membro da Sociedade Cheryl Johnson Smekal. O consultório odontológico do Dr. Johnson estava localizado na 433 Thomas Avenue em Riverton e ainda é a estrutura mais antiga nessa rua, datando de cerca de 1869. O Dr. Johnson comprou a casa da família Coddington, que administrava uma loja de tintas e papel de parede na cidade.

Os mistérios do passado de Riverton continuam a ser revelados conforme mais pessoas exploram o site e contribuem com imagens, memórias e identificam os rostos de moradores da cidade há muito esquecidos, mas cujas contribuições para a nossa comunidade fizeram de Riverton um lugar tão especial para se viver ao longo das margens do Delaware Rio em Nova Jersey. & # 8211 Gerald Weaber, HSR Presidente


Notas

Richard Ingersoll: Em seu testamento de 21 de julho de 1644, provado em 2 de janeiro de 1645, ele menciona: esposa Anne (Langely) filhos George, John e Nathaniel, o genro mais novo Richard Pettingell, que m. sua filha. Joanna e William Haines, que m. sua filha Sarah, (ela tinha o segundo marido Joseph Houlton), filhas Alice (esposa de Josiah Walcot) e Bathsheba, a mais jovem (que mais tarde m. John Knight, jr., e antes de 1652, seu pai John Knight, sr. .casou-se com sua mãe Anne, que faleceu em 1677.) Em seu inv. um par de bois é estabelecido com o valor de & # x00a314 e sua fazenda de cinqüenta acres & # x00a37.

O resumo a seguir foi tirado literalmente de uma cópia feita por Joshua Coffin ao pesquisar os Registros Trimestrais do Tribunal de Salem: & quotEu dou a Ann, minha esposa, todos os meus bens de terra, bens e quaisquer outros bens móveis, exceto como segue, viz. Dou a George Ingersoll, meu filho, seis acres de campina na grande campina. Item que dou a Nathaniel Ingersoll, meu filho mais novo, um pedaço de terreno com uma pequena moldura nele, que comprei de John P [facilidade?], Mas se o dito Nathaniel morreu sem deixar seu corpo legalmente gerado, então a terra mencionada será igualmente compartilhado entre John Ingersoll, meu filho, e Richard Pettingel e William Haines, meus genros. Dou a Bate-Seba minha filha mais nova duas vacas. Eu dei para minha filha mais nova, Alice Walcott, minha casa na cidade com 10 acres de planalto e prados após a morte de minha esposa. R (sua marca) I. & quot Li este testamento para Richard Ingersoll e ele reconheceu que era seu testamento. Jo. Endecott. & Quot Wit: Townsend Bishop.

Inventário feito em 4 de outubro de 1644. Para ilustrar o valor relativo da terra e do estoque, apresento alguns itens da avaliação da propriedade. 7 vacas & # x015334, 2 novilhos & # x01534, touro & # x01537, par de bois & # x015314, 2 cavalos e égua e um potro jovem & # x015325, uma fazenda de 80 acres & # x01537. Entre outros itens estava um traje de pele de alce. (E. I. Hist. Coll. 1:12.)

Ele era um barqueiro.7681 Ele também era conhecido como Richard Inkersall.9766 Ele veio para a Nova Inglaterra com sua família no dia 2 de Mayflower em 1629. O mestre deste Mayflower era o famoso Capitão William Pierce. O navio deixou Gravesend, Londres, Inglaterra em março de 1629 e chegou a Plymouth em 15 de maio de 1629. Havia aproximadamente 35 passageiros, incluindo Richard Ingersall, sua esposa Anne e seus filhos: George, Joanna, John, Sarah e Alice. Ele manteve a balsa em North River.

(REF: Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-33, Comments on Richard Ingersoll) Na concessão de terras de 1636 em Salem, Richard Ingersoll aparece na parte da lista que incluía & quotnon-freemen & quot, que em Salem nos diz claramente que ele não era membro da igreja. Na concessão de terras de 1637 em Salem, Richard Ingersoll é mostrado com uma família de nove. Sete de seus filhos viviam naquela data, mas sua filha mais velha, Alice, já era casada com William Walcott e teria sido incluída na família do marido. Assim, pode ter havido uma criança adicional de outra forma não registrada, mas esta criança por sua vez deve ter morrido antes de 1644 ou pode ter havido um parente mais distante ou um servo morando com os Ingersolls naquele ano.

Um inventário da propriedade feito em 4 de outubro de 1644. Alguns dos itens listados eram os seguintes: 7 vacas, 34 libras, dois novilhos, 4 libras. touro, 7 libras. par de bois, 14 libras. dois cavalos e égua e potro jovem, 25 libras. uma fazenda de 80 acres, 7 libras. Um terno de pele de alce era outro item.

Entre os papéis de Richard Ingersoll foi encontrada esta receita: & quotUm metson para fazer um homem ouvir gritar quando está careca: pegue algumas moscas ferozes e alguns vermes vermelhos e some snayles negros e somar abelhas hune e secá-los e triturá-los até virar pó e misturá-los leite ou água. & quot

Alega-se que uma certa casa em Salem foi construída por Richard Ingersoll e foi a casa original do romance de Nathanial Hawthorne-House of the Seven Gables.

Vários anos depois, a viúva, Anne, casou-se com John Knight, Sr. de Newbury e surgiu um litígio sobre a fazenda que seu marido havia deixado para ela. No julgamento, seu genro deu o seguinte testemunho: & quotI Richard Pettingell, com cerca de 45 anos, testemunhou que esta fazenda que agora está em controvérsia foi reservada pela viúva Inkersoll para ela antes de seu casamento com John Knight, Sr. e ela deram verbalmente esta terra a John Inkersoll, seu filho. Eu, Richard Pettingell, doe farder, testifico que por volta do ano 52 o dito John Knight voltou para casa em Newbury e disse a sua esposa que ele havia prometido ao Sr. Pain somar madeira no rio de peixes congelados, ela então se preocupou com isso e disse o que você tem a fazer para vender minha madeira onde, segundo o dito John Knight, prometeu-lhe vinte xelins, e o dito John Knight, Sr. reconheceu então que não tinha direito sobre aquela terra & quot. (Essex Court Files XIV 28-32) John Knight juntou-se a sua esposa para transmitir a fazenda aos filhos dela, John e Nathaniel, & quotIngerson & quot.


Kirjoituksia

Anne Knight oli kirjoittanut useita lastenkirjoja, joista osa on erehdyksellisesti katsottu hänen kveekkarin nimekampansa ja nykyaikaisen naisten oikeuksia puolustavan Anne Knightin (1786–1862) mukaan. Niihin Kuuluvat Letras de sala de aula (1846) ja todennäköisesti Respícios Poéticos (1827), Aamut Kirjastossa (Lontoo, s. 1828, johdantoeron kirjoittanut Bernard Barton), Mary Gray. Tarina pienille tytöille (mukaan lukien myös Bartonin jae, Lontoo, 1831) ja Lyriques français: pour la jeunesse. Morceaux choisis par AK (3. e., Norwich, 1869).

Knightin säkeet ovat hyvin muotoiltuja ja hänen tarinansa hyvin kerrottuja, mutta niissä esiintyy didaktiikkaa, joka ei sovi nykyaikaiseen makuun. Otetaan esimerkki: "" Vaikka nämä eläimet [kanit] ovat niin pieniä ", jatkoi rouva Gray," heidän on todettu olevan erittäin hyödyllisiä ihmiselle. Heidän lihastansa em hyvä syödä ja pehmeä harmaa turkki, kasvaa lähellä ihoa. , tehdään hattuiksi sekoitettuna majavan kauniiseen hienoon pohjoiseen, Amerikan löydetty utelias eläin. "( Mary Gray , s. 11).


A emissora do Panorama Africano da Radio54, Anne Nhira, faleceu na madrugada por volta da 1h de hoje, 11 de março de 2021.

A Rainha Diva, como era popularmente conhecida pelos fãs e ouvintes da Radio54, sucumbiu aos ferimentos sofridos depois que ela foi assaltada por um ladrão armado solitário na segunda-feira, 8 de março de 2021 no final da tarde.

Anne estava sozinha e tinha ido a um shopping center próximo para suas orações privadas, como fazia rotineiramente todas as segundas-feiras. Seu irmão Juan Nhira me ligou na terça-feira de manhã para me alertar sobre o incidente que aconteceu em Bedfordview, África do Sul, perto da casa para onde ela se mudou algumas semanas atrás.

Ela foi apanhada por um bom samaritano branco, que então providenciou para que ela fosse levada ao hospital, pois ela não podia se mover. Recebeu tratamento e teve alta por volta das 5h do mesmo dia. Eu pedi que ele fosse até ela porque eu queria falar com ela.

Consegui falar com ela no telefone de seu irmão, mas ela estava lutando para falar. Ela gemia e reclamava de fortes dores no lado esquerdo. Depois de confortá-la, ela conseguiu reunir um pouco de energia para compartilhar comigo alguns detalhes de sua provação.

Segundo ela, estava ajoelhada e orando quando ouviu alguns passos de suas costas. Quando ela se virou, o ladrão armado apontou uma arma para sua cabeça e exigiu que ela lhe desse o telefone.

A falecida tentou fugir, mas caiu desajeitadamente e imediatamente perdeu a consciência. Essa foi a última vez que ela se lembrou. O assaltante armado fugiu com seu telefone, sua bolsa com todos os detalhes que estavam nela.

Quando ela recobrou a consciência, ela percebeu que estava no hospital, onde foi submetida a tratamento. O hospital a atendeu, mas estranhamente concluiu que ela estava bem e que havia sofrido apenas ferimentos leves.

Eu a investiguei mais e tentei encorajá-la a contar mais, pois suspeitei que ela estava pior do que estava dizendo, a julgar pela textura de sua voz e pela forma como ela estava chorando. Naquele momento, ela me disse que também havia perdido o apetite e que vomitava sangue constantemente.

Eu imediatamente liguei para nossa Estação Radio54, Pastor Weston Muranda e nosso Diretor Técnico Steve Muzite, e contei a eles sobre eles as notícias devastadoras. Ela insistiu que eu não contasse a ninguém, a não ser àqueles dois, pois eles fazem parte da equipe de gerenciamento sênior da Radio54.

O Sr. Muzite e eu enviamos imediatamente ao irmão dela algum dinheiro para ajudá-la com as despesas médicas e para comprar outro telefone e outras coisas de que ela precisava com urgência. Ela me mandou uma mensagem usando o telefone do irmão dele para confirmar que havia recebido o dinheiro.

Liguei para ela imediatamente, pois queria saber se havia alguma melhora e se a dor havia diminuído. Ela estava um pouco melhor, mas ainda estava emitindo sangue pela boca.

Pedi a ela que fosse para o hospital, pois o sangue que saía de sua boca era um sinal definitivo de lesões internas. Ela disse que iria no dia seguinte, pois já era tarde.

Então, pedi a ela que me enviasse uma mensagem assim que recebesse um telefone e ela disse que faria isso usando o número da esposa de seu irmão, já que seria ela quem a levaria ao hospital. Infelizmente, foi a última vez que ouvi falar dela.

Anne Nhira foi a apresentadora do programa semanal de música e talk show 'The Love and life Bites' transmitido na Radio54 todas as terças-feiras à noite e também 'The Real African Talk' Show todos os sábados à noite, onde ela convidava pessoas de destaque para abordar questões que afetam o continente africano .

Alguns dos convidados que ela recebeu incluem o Professor P.L.O Lumumba, um franco pan-africanista e advogado queniano. A Radio54 irá transmitir uma homenagem a Anne Nhira na próxima terça-feira que irei apresentar pessoalmente em memória a um dos maiores talentos do Zimbábue e da África e filha do solo.

No momento desta publicação, sua família estava se preparando para a repatriação de seu corpo para o Zimbábue, onde ela será sepultada. Avisaremos sobre mais detalhes.

Descanse em paz ‘The Queen Diva’. Você fará falta para sempre, meu amigo especial.


Como eu escrevi a pandemia: o escritor de ‘Locked Down’ explica

Steven Knight unpacks his new quarantine film, starring Anne Hathaway and Chiwetel Ejiofor, and the process of memorializing very recent history.

How do you tell the story of the coronavirus pandemic? How will the events of the past year — both catastrophic and intangible, global and intimate, diffuse but interconnected — be inevitably abridged for audiences of the future?

Historically, epidemics have had a way of resisting collective memory. After the bubonic plague in London, it took more than half a century before the arrival of an enduring literary account of the scourge, Daniel Defoe’s “A Journal of the Plague Year,” in 1722. The flu pandemic of 1918, which killed tens of millions around the world, left a remarkably small footprint on 20th-century literature and film.

This pandemic will be different. Contemporaneous television shows about life during Covid-19 are already available, offering previews of how posterity might remember this moment, even as it remains far from resolved. Recently, they were joined by the first major feature film to be set during the pandemic — “Locked Down” (HBO Max), in which an unhappy couple (Anne Hathaway and Chiwetel Ejiofor) uses forced downtime to plot an improbable heist at Harrods, the London department store.

I called the screenwriter of “Locked Down,” Steven Knight (the writer-director of “Locke”), in Gloucestershire, England, to talk about how he wrote the pandemic, what archaeologists will uncover about this era and the value of pre-empting the “tidiness” of history. These are edited excerpts from the conversation.

When did you first think of writing about the pandemic?

STEVEN KNIGHT It was late summer, about six weeks before we started shooting. I had started writing an exchange on Zoom between two people just for fun. It was the idea that, rather like “Locke” [the 2014 Tom Hardy film that takes place almost entirely during a long, late-night drive], you could take the limitation and do something with it. At the same time, I was talking to Doug Liman [the director of “Locked Down”] about another project, and we started talking about Zoom and lockdown and how it was affecting us. And then we started imagining that we could make a film, and talking about plots, and Harrods, and then we just did it.

There are some Zoom scenes in the movie, but obviously it changed from that initial idea. What made you go in a different direction?

KNIGHT We thought it would be a good idea to cut between Zoom and live action, so that you get to see the characters go to the real world. But we still wanted to keep it as claustrophobic as possible until we get to Harrods. We had such great actors, I think it would have been a shame to just limit them to the head and shoulders.

Did you always know who the characters were?

KNIGHT I knew I wanted a relationship that had run its course, with one person who had outgrown the other. In the normal world, they would be separating, but, because of the crisis, they’re forced to stay together. Their identities have been defined by what they do for a living: one’s a delivery driver, the other’s doing really well in a marketing company. What happens when those definitions become less important because they’re not working anymore? Do they go back to who they were when they fell in love? That’s the thing I wanted to explore, as well as the madness that was going on in London at the time.

What aspects of life amid the pandemic felt important to include? Had you been keeping notes?

KNIGHT What was interesting to me was the way that vocabulary changed, the way new words and phrases were created. People were responding to a brand-new situation, so you get expressions like “social distancing,” “new normal” or “Covid-friendly.” Even the way people talk and the way they behave on Zoom is something new. The idea of what your background is, or that who you are is identified by the bookcase behind you. If you were an archaeologist digging into this time period, you’d find all these little changes in culture starting to emerge.

Was there a moment with the screenplay when you felt confident that the movie would work?

KNIGHT At a certain point I learned that the big department stores in London had emptied out all of their super-expensive stock. They were afraid there would be riots and looting, and so, over a five-day period, all of this stuff was taken out in a kind of panic. I got talking to people at Harrods, and they said that they’d had franchise managers from places like Gucci taking millions of dollars’ worth of stuff in plastic shopping bags and getting into black cabs.

When reality offers you such an unusual dislocation of what is normal, a situation that no one has been through before, it can be quite gleeful to write about — it’s like stepping on fresh snow. It also felt like an opportunity to offer up some characters who find an opportunity. There’s the Churchill expression about never wasting a good crisis.

Were there multiple drafts of the script?

KNIGHT No, I didn’t have time. For better or worse, I would write the first act, and the production crew would start preparing to shoot it, and then I’d write the second act, they’d start preparing that, and so on.

Was it challenging working that way? With no safety net?

KNIGHT I personally love it. It’s more like theater — it’s almost live. You just have to get it out. And it felt like the right way to do it in this situation, because we wanted to prove that it can be done. It’s funny, now there are all these new ways and techniques of filming [during] Covid. But we were doing it before any of that was in place.

I think when most people think about their lives over the past year, stuck at home all day in sweats or pajamas, it doesn’t feel especially cinematic. What about the experience did you think lent itself to watching onscreen?

KNIGHT I’m always attracted to situations that enclose people. I think if you have two people stuck in an elevator for a long period, their conversation is going to be so heightened. There’s something about that environment that it gives you a shortcut into who people are underneath. And the thing that I’m interested in is how people talk, what people reveal when they’re under that sort of circumstance.

There’s a French filmmaker whose name I’ve forgotten who said, “If you point the camera at anyone and ask them to talk about themselves for four minutes, by the end of the four minutes, you will be convinced they’re insane.” In daily life, we are the delivery driver, or we are the marketing personnel, we are the thing that’s defined by our roles. But when all of that is uncloaked, when everybody is just still and can’t go anywhere, the thing they really are, I think, starts to come to the surface. I’m sure it happens in huge adventures and crises and war. But when it happens in these small situations, like in “Locke,” where it’s one man driving from one place to another, that isolation is what I see as the microscope.

The other big question that hangs over a project like this is the timing of it. I think a lot of people aren’t sure they want to revisit the spring of 2020 right now. How did you approach that problem in writing the story?

KNIGHT I’m a believer in you write what comes to you. If you have the conversation with yourself in advance, “Is this what’s going to be popular?” I don’t think I can do that. At the time we started this, I was writing lots of other things as well, but this is what kept coming up. The great thing is people have a choice. If it is painful, I completely understand that is the case for some people. But I’m hoping that doing something like this — it’s the human reaction to adversity throughout history. You try to make sense of it somehow, or you look for a silver lining.

What’s your appetite for watching movies about the pandemic?

KNIGHT Well, I think it’s going to spawn all kinds of things, just like the Second World War: novels, films, comic books. We were very anxious to be the first. We may not be the best, but we’re the first, and we did it while it was still fresh and raw. History tends to tidy things up, to find patterns and discard things that don’t fit into the pattern. And I think as this moves on, there’ll probably be a view that it had a beginning, middle and end, and that certain things were inevitable while others were never going to happen. But, in the middle of it, like a war, you don’t know who’s going to win. You don’t know what’s going to happen. And I think it’s important to capture that phase of uncertainty as it really was.


Írások

Anne Knight számos gyermekkönyv szerzője, amelyek közül néhányat tévesen tulajdonítottak Quaker névmáskájához és kortárs Anne Knight-hoz (1786–1862), a nők jogaiért küzdő kampányhoz. Ide tartoznak az Iskolai Lyrics (1846) és valószínűleg a Poetic Gleanings (1827), a Reggel a könyvtárban (London, 1828 körül, Bernard Barton bevezető versével), Mary Gray. Mese kislányoknak (beleértve egy Bartoni verset, London, 1831) és Lyriques français: pour la jeunesse. Morceaux choisis par AK (3. e., Norwich, 1869).

Knight versei jól kidolgozottak és történeteik jól elhangzottak, de olyan didaktikát mutatnak, amely nem felel meg a modern ízlésnek. Példakénti példát: "Bár ezek az állatok [nyulak] olyan kicsik - folytatta Mrs. Grey -, az ember számára nagyon kiszolgáltathatónak találják őket. Húsuk jó enni, a puha szürke szőr pedig a bőr közelében növekszik. , kalapokká alakulnak, amikor összekeverik a hód gyönyörű finom finomságával, egy kíváncsi állat Észak-Amerikában. "( Mary Gray , 11. o.).


Biografia

Anne Boleyn’s birthdate is unknown even the year is widely debated. General opinion now favors 1501 or 1502, though some historians persuasively argue for 1507. She was probably born at Blickling Hall in Norfolk. Her father was Sir Thomas Boleyn, a minor courtier with a talent for foreign languages he was of London merchant stock and eager to advance in the world. Like most men, he chose to marry well. His bride was Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the second duke of Norfolk and sister of the third duke.

Anne had two surviving siblings, Mary and George. Their birthdates are also unknown, as is the order of their births. We only know that all three Boleyn siblings were close in age.

miniature portrait of Anne Boleyn

In 1514, Henry VIII married his youngest sister, Mary, to the aged king of France. Anne accompanied the Tudor princess as a very young lady-in-waiting and she remained in France after the French king died and Mary Tudor returned home. Anne gained the subsequent honor of being educated under the watchful eye of the new French queen Claude. This education had a uniquely French emphasis upon fashion and flirtation, though more intellectual skills were not neglected. Anne became an accomplished musician, singer and dancer.

In 1521 or early 1522, with war between England and France imminent, Anne returned home. When she first caught Henry VIII’s eye is unknown. He was originally attracted to her sister, Mary who came to court before Anne. She was the king’s mistress in the early 1520s and, as a mark of favor, her father was elevated to the peerage as viscount Rochfort/Rochford in 1525. Mary herself would leave court with only a dull marriage, and possibly the king’s illegitimate son, as her reward. Anne learned much from her sister’s example.

Anne’s first years at court were spent in service to Henry VIII’s first wife, Katharine of Aragon. She became quite popular among the younger men. She was not considered a great beauty her sister occupied that position in the family, but even Mary was merely deemed ‘pretty’. Hostile chroniclers described Anne as plain, sallow, and possessing two distinct flaws – a large mole on the side of her neck and an extra finger on her left hand. Such praise as she received focused on her style, her wit and charm she was quick-tempered and spirited. Her most remarkable physical attributes were her large dark eyes and long black hair.

The king’s attraction was focused upon her sharp and teasing manner, and her oft-stated unavailability. What he couldn’t have, he pined for all the more. This was especially difficult for a king used to having his own way in everything. Anne was also seriously involved with Henry Percy, the son and heir of the earl of Northumberland there were rumors of an engagement and declarations of true love. The king ordered his great minister, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, to end the match. Wolsey did so, thus ensuring Percy’s unhappy marriage to the earl of Shrewsbury’s daughter and Anne’s great enmity. It was safer to blame the Cardinal than his king. Also, Henry’s jealousy revealed the depth of his feelings, and Anne quite naturally thought – if she could not be an earl’s wife, why not try for the crown of England?

When Anne avoided Henry’s company, or when she was sullen and evasive to him, he sent her from court. The king hoped that a few months in the country would persuade her of his charms. It did not work. Anne was already playing a far more serious game than the king. Later, after she had been arrested, Henry would claim he had been ‘bewitched’ and the term wasn’t used lightly in the 16th century. But perhaps it was simply the contrast between her vivacity and Katharine’s solemnity, or perhaps the king mistook the inexplicable ardor of true love for something more ominous, long after that love had faded.

It is impossible to fully explain the mystery of attraction between two people. How Anne was able to capture and maintain the king’s attention for such a long while, despite great obstacles and the constant presence of malicious gossip, cannot be explained. Henry was headstrong and querulous. But for several years, he remained faithful to his feelings for Anne – and his attendant desire for a legitimate male heir.

Miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon

One cannot separate the king’s desire for a son, indeed its very necessity, from his personal desire for Anne. The two interests merged perfectly in 1527. Henry had discovered the invalidity of his marriage to Katharine. Now it was possible to annul his marriage and secure his two fondest hopes – Anne’s hand in marriage and the long-desired heir.

Cardinal Wolsey had long advocated an Anglo-French alliance. For that reason, he disliked the Spanish Katharine of Aragon. He now set about securing his monarch’s annulment with the intention of marrying Henry to a French princess. And if not a French princess, perhaps a great lady of the English court. Wolsey did not like Anne, and she despised him for that earlier injury to her heart. She did what she could to work against the Lord Chancellor. And Wolsey’s ambitious protégé (and successor) Thomas Cromwell became her close ally.

But Anne alone did not cause Wolsey’s fall from grace, though she took the blame for it. Indeed, ‘Nan Bullen’, as the common people derisively called her, became the scapegoat for all the king’s unpopular decisions. But it is important to remember that no one – not Wolsey, not Cromwell, and certainly not Anne Boleyn – ever controlled Henry VIII, or made him do other than exactly what he wanted. He was a king who thoroughly knew and enjoyed his position. Sir Thomas More would aptly point this out to his son-in-law, William Roper – ‘If a lion knew his strength, it were hard for any man to hold him.’ And later, when Roper commented upon the king’s affection for More, the philosopher replied that if his head would win the king a castle in France, then Henry would not hesitate to chop it off.

But most people found it easier to hate Anne than to hate their monarch. As the king’s desire for an annulment became the gossip of all Europe, she was roundly criticized and condemned. She was not popular at the English court either. Both her unique situation and her oft times abrasive personality offended many. And Katharine’s solemn piety had impressed the English court for three decades her supporters were numerous, though not inclined to face the king’s formidable wrath. In truth, Anne was sustained only by the king’s affection and she knew his mercurial temper. It is possible that she was as surprised by his faithfulness as everyone else.

As the struggle for an annulment proceeded and the pope prevaricated between Henry and Katharine’s nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Anne’s position at the English court became steadily more prominent. There were at first little signs. The king would eat alone with her she received expensive gifts she began to dress in the most fashionable and expensive gowns the king paid her gambling debts since Anne, like most courtiers, enjoyed cards and dice.

The king was not too outlandish at first for he had no desire to prejudice the pope against his case by flaunting a new love. But as the delays mounted, and rumors of his new love spread, Henry realized there was no purpose in hiding the truth. By 1530, Anne was openly honored by the king at court. She was accorded precedence over all other ladies, and she sat with the king at banquets and hunts while Katharine was virtually ignored. The pretense of his first marriage was allowed to continue Katharine continued to personally mend his shirts and send him gifts and notes. But it was an untenable situation. It grated on both women. Anne perhaps taxed the king with it. To placate her, she was titled marquess of Pembroke on 4 September 1532 at Windsor Castle she wore a beautiful crimson gown and her hair hung loose. Now elevated to the peerage in her own right, she had wealth and lands of her own. But when she accompanied Henry to France on a state visit a short while later, the ladies of the French court refused to meet with her.

It is believed that her elevation to the peerage marked the physical consummation of Anne and Henry’s relationship, as well as a secret wedding. The circumstantial evidence is compelling. Anne would give birth to Elizabeth just a year later, in September 1533, and it is very unlikely that she and Henry – after waiting for years to be together – would suddenly have sex and risk an unplanned and, most importantly, illegitimate pregnancy. Secret weddings were hardly uncommon at the Tudor court. If they had a secret ceremony and consummated their relationship, then Anne became pregnant with Elizabeth just a few months later and that made a second, unquestionably legitimate wedding necessary.

Sepia-tinged sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger

The king had his fondest wish within his grasp. Anne was pregnant with his long-awaited son, or so he thought, and this son must be legitimate. He could no longer wait upon the pope. Henry rejected the authority of the Holy See and Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, annulled his marriage to Katharine. Henry and Anne married again in January 1533 in a small ceremony. But though they were now husband and wife, few recognized the fact.

Her coronation was a lavish affair the king spared no expense. But the people of London were noticeably unimpressed. They cried out ‘HA! HA!’ mockingly as tapestries decorated with Henry and Anne’s entwined initials passed by. Henry asked, ‘How liked you the look of the City?’ Anne replied, ‘Sir, I liked the City well enough – but I saw a great many caps on heads, and heard but few tongues.’

And so her coronation was yet another reminder of her complete dependency upon the king.

Anne enjoyed her triumph as best she could. She ordered new blue and purple livery for her servants and set about replacing Katharine’s badge of pomegranates with her own falcon symbol. She chose as her motto, ‘The Most Happy’, in stark contrast to her predecessor. Katharine had been ‘Humble and Loyal’ Henry’s mother, Elizabeth of York had chosen ‘Humble and Reverent’. But humility was not a marked characteristic of Anne Boleyn.

She was pious, though not as rigid and inflexible as Katharine of Aragon. Anne’s sympathies naturally lay with the progressive thought now challenging Catholic orthodoxy with Henry’s rejection of the papacy and his creation of a new Church of England, the Reformation had come to England. It was not as revolutionary as Luther’s movement in Germany. Henry actually remained a devout Catholic, only denying what he now regarded as the illegitimate authority of the papacy. Anne knew that her marriage and future children would never be recognized as legitimate by Catholic Europe. She had to support the new church, otherwise she was no more than the king’s mistress.

And this new emphasis upon debating even the most esoteric bits of theology appealed to her nature. She was always curious and open to new ideas she never blindly acceptedThe above portrait is of Anne Boleyn, painted by Lucas Horenbout dated 1525-27. Sir Roy Strong identified the portrait. Anne wears a necklace with her falcon badge. nada. But this is not to deny her deep faith. As queen, she was close friends with Thomas Cranmer and she also sponsored various religious books. She had none of the hard-fought pragmatism of her daughter, Elizabeth. Religious faith was a vital part of Anne’s life, as it was for every person in the 16th century.

She entered confinement for the birth of her first child on 26 August 1533. The child was born on 7 September 1533. The physicians and astrologers had been mistaken it was not a prince. But the healthy baby girl called Elizabeth was not the disappointment most assumed, nor did she immediately cause her mother’s downfall. The birth had been very easy and quick. ‘There was good speed in the deliverance and bringing forth,’ Anne wrote to Lord Cobham that very day. The queen recovered quickly. Henry had every reason to believe that strong princes would follow. It was only when Anne miscarried two sons that he began to question the validity of his second marriage.

Elizabeth’s christening was a grand affair, though the king did not attend. This fact was much remarked-upon, but Henry confounded all by his continuing affection for Anne. He also promptly declared Elizabeth his heir, thus according her precedence over her 17 year old half-sister, Princess Mary. Anne could breathe a sigh of relief, recover, and become pregnant again.

Immediately after Elizabeth’s christening, Henry wrote to Mary and demanded that she relinquish her title of Princess of Wales. The title belonged to his heiress. He also demanded that she acknowledge the validity of his new marriage and legitimacy of her half-sister. But Mary could be as obstinate as her mother she refused. Enraged, Henry evicted Mary from her home, the manor Beaulieu, so he could give it to Anne’s brother, George. In December, she was moved into Elizabeth’s household under the care of Lady Anne Shelton, a sister of Anne’s father. It was an understandably miserable time for Mary. When told to pay her respects to the baby Princess, she said that she knew of no Princess of England but herself and burst into tears.

The above portrait is of Anne Boleyn, painted by Lucas Horenbout dated 1525-27. Sir Roy Strong identified the portrait. Anne wears a necklace with her falcon badge.

Henry was infuriated and Anne encouraged the estrangement. Her daughter’s status depended upon Mary remaining out of favor. In the two and a half years she lived after Elizabeth’s birth, Anne proved herself a devoted mother. Soon after the birth, Elizabeth had to be moved from London, for purposes of health London was rife with a variety of illnesses – sweating sickness, smallpox, and plague. Elizabeth and Mary were sent to Hatfield. Both Henry and Anne visited their daughter often, occasionally taking her back with them to Greenwich or the palace at Eltham. During these visits, Mary was kept alone in her room.

There are account books and letters which reveal certain facts about Elizabeth’s early childhood: bills for an orange satin gown and russet velvet kirtle, for the king’s heir had to be fashionably dressed a letter in late 1535, after her second birthday, from the wet nurse asking permission to wean her a plan of study in classical languages, for Anne was determined her daughter would be as educated as Mary.

The conflict with Mary dominated a great deal of Henry and Anne’s thoughts. In January 1534, the king’s new chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, went to visit Mary at Hatfield. He urged her to renounce her title and warned her that her behavior would lead to her ruin. Mary replied that she simply wanted her father’s blessing and the honor of kissing his hand. When Cromwell chastised her, she left the room. Mary, and indeed most of England, believed Anne to be the cause of Henry’s disgust with his eldest child. In truth, Henry had far more to do with it than Anne this was proven after Anne’s execution. Mary believed that she would regain her favor with the wicked stepmother out of the way but she was proven terribly wrong. Eventually, under threat of her life, she wrote the letter her father had long desired.

He and Anne also tried a gentler course with Mary their goal was to show that she had brought Henry’s displeasure upon herself and that he and Anne were quite willing – under reasonable conditions – to receive her. At their next visit to Hatfield, Anne arranged to see her stepdaughter. She invited Mary to come to court and ‘visit me as Queen.’ Mary responded with a cruel insult – ‘I know no Queen in England but my mother. But if you, Madam, as my father’s mistress, will intercede for me with him, I should be grateful.’ Anne did not lose her temper she pointed out the absurdity of the request and repeated her offer. Mary then refused to answer and Anne left in a rage. From then on, she made no attempts to gain Mary’s friendship.

The problem with Mary highlights the untenable positions Anne and Elizabeth occupied in English politics. Many of Henry’s subjects did not know who to call Princess, who was the rightful heir, and who was the true wife. Katharine of Aragon lived on, still calling herself Queen, and Mary, encouraged by the spiteful Imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys, still called herself Princess. Furthermore, Chapuys, who openly despised Anne, told Mary that Anne was planning to have her murdered. It was a terrible lie but one that Mary, in her hysterical state, was inclined to believe. When word came that she and Elizabeth’s household was moving from Hatfield to The More, she refused to go. She believed she would be moved and quietly murdered. Guards had to actually seize her and throw her into her litter. Her distress naturally made her ill.

Elizabeth, meanwhile, was too young to notice any of this. But such events helped cement the lifelong hatred Mary would have for her half-sister. Her Spanish friends continued to spread rumors about Anne and Elizabeth, saying the infant princess was physically deformed and monstrous in appearance. To dispel this, in April 1534, Henry showed the naked infant to several continental ambassadors. In that same month, Anne announced she was once again pregnant. Nothing could have pleased Henry more. She may have had a miscarriage in February for there were rumors she was pregnant in January but nothing came of it given the heightened circumstances, it is unlikely she could have hidden her condition. Even a suspicion of pregnancy was sure to become gossip. But the main source of this miscarriage is Chapuys, hardly an impartial observer. At any rate, she was definitely pregnant again in April 1534.

sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger

The elated king took his wife to the medieval palace at Eltham there, they sent for the princess Elizabeth. Henry was often seen carrying her about and playing with her. The king and queen soon returned to Greenwich and then Henry left on a progress, leaving Anne at the palace. This was probably out of concern for her health and lends some credence to the belief she miscarried in February. If she had, Henry would show special concern for her health, and this he did. He was supposed to meet Francis I of France in June at Calais to sign a treaty but decided not to attend, writing that Katharine and Mary, ‘bearing no small grudge against his most entirely beloved Queen Anne, might perchance in his absence take occasion to practice matters of no small peril to his royal person, realm, and subjects.’

His extra attention to Anne did not help her health. In September 1534, she miscarried a six-month-old fetus it was old enough for features to be discerned – it was a boy. Henry was bitterly disappointed. Anne was likewise. She was also angry for Henry had begun a casual affair that summer. She reproached him and Henry replied, ‘You have good reason to be content with what I have done for you – and I would not do it again, if the thing were to begin. Consider from what you have come.’ The scene was furious and overheard by her attendants. But it was a passing storm. Henry was already tired of his new mistress and, within days, Chapuys was sadly writing to Charles V of Henry’s continued affection. But there were other signs that things were not progressing smoothly.

For example, Henry had hoped to cement his relationship with Francis I by betrothing Elizabeth to Francis’s son, the Duc d’Angouleme. After Anne suffered two miscarriages, as the French ambassador reported to Francis, the French king grew wary of such a betrothal. To him, it must have seemed that Anne’s position was weakening after all, Henry had dismissed one wife because she had no sons – would he do the same to Anne? And, if he did, then what good was a marriage to Elizabeth? Of course, it was in France’s interests to promote Anne for Katharine of Aragon and her daughter were Charles V’s pawns. But his doubts highlighted the instability of Anne’s position.

This undoubtedly affected her mental and physical health. Henry was never the mercenary adulterer of legend. In fact, he was remarkably conventional in his sexual appetites, unlike his French rival. Any affairs would have been widely reported and yet, during his long marriage to Katharine of Aragon, there were just a handful of mistresses. He enjoyed being around attractive women. He was flirtatious and would joke with them, compliment them, but only rarely did he enter into a physical relationship.

But for Anne, any occasional fling was devastating, especially if it followed upon a miscarriage. Such behavior was said to indicate his displeasure with her this she could not afford. They were occasionally estranged and the effect was to increase her already-noticeable anxiety. In late 1534 Anne, accompanied by the duke of Suffolk, her uncle Norfolk, and other courtiers, visited Richmond Palace, where both Elizabeth and Mary resided. Anne entered her daughter’s rooms only to realize that the two dukes had left her. They were paying court to Mary and remained with her until Anne had left. Still, this slight could be forgotten when the Treason Act was passed in November. It was now a capital crime to deny the legitimacy of her marriage or children. By December, she and Henry had made up yet again.

A scandal occurred shortly thereafter which added further damage to Anne’s reputation. Her sister, Mary, who had been Henry’s mistress years before, married Sir William Stafford without her family or the king’s permission. Because Stafford was poor, Mary’s father was angry and cut off her allowance. She appealed to the king and Anne but they would not help. (Mary did not attend court during Anne’s reign, since her presence would have been an embarrassment for the king and queen.)

Always fascinated with rumors surrounding his English ‘brother’, Francis I decided to hedge his bets in the mercurial Tudor court. In other words, he would remain friendly with Anne and also with Mary Tudor. And so he instructed his new ambassador, Admiral Chabot, to ignore Anne when he arrived at court. Chabot was received by Henry and two days passed without any mention of the queen. Henry asked if Chabot wanted to visit her. The ambassador replied, ‘As it pleases Your Highness’ and then asked permission to visit Mary. Henry refused, but Chabot made certain everyone knew of his request. He also told courtiers that Francis wanted to marry the Dauphin to Mary when Henry reminded him of the union with Elizabeth, the ambassador said nothing. Still, Francis did enrage Charles V by acknowledging Elizabeth’s legitimacy.

It was a tedious and frightening dance for Anne. During the two and a half years after Elizabeth’s birth, she was rarely secure, certain of her position and the king’s affections. Her little daughter received every favor she could bestow Anne insisted Henry favor Elizabeth because it strengthened her position. But she was surrounded by fair-weather friends who, at the slightest sign of Henry’s disfavor, ignored her. She only trusted her brother, George, whose wife, Jane Rochford, was a viper in their nest. Meanwhile, Henry was again flirting openly with another woman. This time it was Anne’s cousin and lady-in-waiting, Madge Shelton. Anne still had influence over her husband, but knew only one way to make his favor permanent. She must bear a son. Henry would never dismiss the mother of his long-awaited heir. Her enemies would at last be silenced.

Meanwhile, Henry’s health had begun to worsen. The first signs of the illness which would kill him (occluded sinus on the leg) appeared . Headaches became frequent and severe. The king was a hypochondriac. Now unable to indulge his love of sports, he instead indulged his fear of pain and illness. And he was frequently impotent. He was in his mid-forties and increasingly obese this, combined with his other ailments, made his continued virility questionable. Certainly his ‘mistresses’ did not conceive. But the continued lack of an heir and Anne’s miscarriages must have reminded him of Katharine. How could it not? Like most of his contemporaries, the king blamed his wife when she did not conceive or carry to term.

And, like Francis I, Thomas Cromwell – that influential and brilliant man – was keeping his options open as well. He visited Mary and was rumored to promise support for her reinstatement. Anne was terrified at this loss of her one-time supporter who was also the king’s most trusted advisor. But Anne had one last chance, and in June 1535, became pregnant again. She lost that child as well, in January 1536 she was reported to have said, ‘I have miscarried of my savior.’

When her destruction came, it was rapid and unbelievable. Henry had always been one to plot against people while he pretended affection. Anne suffered the same fate as Katharine. She knew he was dissatisfied with her but he maintained their lifestyle together. And all the while, he was seeking the best way to destroy her. Katharine of Aragon died in January as well, just a few days before Anne’s miscarriage. These events, taken together, pushed Henry into action. While Katharine lived, most of Europe, and many Englishmen, had regarded her as his rightful wife, not Anne. Now he was rid of Katharine if he were to rid himself of Anne, he could marry again – and this third marriage would never be tainted by the specter of bigamy.

an 18th century portrait of Anne Boleyn

Henry’s decision to thoroughly destroy Anne baffled even her enemies. There was a possible way out which would spare Anne’s life. Henry had admitted an affair with her sister,Mary. He could have argued that was as damning as Katharine’s marriage to his brother. But he chose a more direct route. He had her arrested, charged with adultery, witchcraft, and incest the charges were ludicrous even to her enemies. Her brother George was arrested as well. His despised wife, Jane Rochford, testified about an incestuous love affair. Whether anyone believed her was irrelevant. Henry VIII wanted Anne convicted and killed. George would also lose his life, as did three of their friends. Only one had confessed to the charge, and that was under torture it was still enough to convict them all.

As queen of England, Anne was tried by her peers the main charge was adultery, and this was an act of treason for a queen. No member of the nobility would help her her craven uncle Norfolk pronounced the death sentence. Poor Henry Percy, her first love, swooned during the trial and had to be carried from the room. As a concession to her former position, she was not beheaded by a clumsy axe. A skilled swordsman was brought over from France. She was assured that there would be little pain she replied, with typical spirit, ‘I have heard that the executioner is very good. And I have a little neck.’

‘You have chosen me from low estate to be your queen and companion, far beyond my desert or desire if, then, you found me worthy of such honor, good your grace, let not any light fancy or bad counsel of my enemies withdraw your princely favor from me neither let that stain – that unworthy stain – of a disloyal heart towards your good grace ever cast so foul a blot on me, and on the infant princess your daughter.’ from Anne Boleyn’s last letter to King Henry VIII, 1536 its authenticity is debated.

She had prayed for exile, to end her days in a nunnery, but now faced a more tragic fate. She met it with bravery and wit. She was brought to the scaffold at 8 o’clock in the morning on 19 May 1536. It was a heretofore unknown spectacle, the first public execution of an English queen. Anne, who had defended herself so ably at her trial, chose her last words carefully: ‘Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.’ She was then blindfolded and knelt at the block. She repeated several times, ‘To Jesus Christ I commend my soul Lord Jesu receive my soul.’

It was a sardonic message to the king. Even now he waited impatiently to hear the Tower cannon mark Anne’s death. He wished to marry Anne’s lady-in-waiting, Jane Seymour. They wed ten days after the execution.

Elizabeth was just three and a half when her mother died. She was a precocious child, though when her governess visited her just days after the execution, Elizabeth asked, ‘Why, Governor, how hap it yesterday Lady Princess, and today but Lady Elizabeth?’

Anne was buried in an old arrow box since no coffin was provided. But the box was too short her head was tucked beside her. The remains were taken to St Peter ad Vincula, the church of the Tower of London, where they would later be joined by her cousin, and Henry’s fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

‘And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best.’
from Anne Boleyn’s speech at her execution


Anne Hutchinson&aposs Final Years 

After William’s death in 1642, ministers from Massachusetts were dispatched to force Anne to renounce her beliefs and coerce her into believing that Massachusetts would soon take over the Rhode Island territory.

Wishing to escape Massachusetts’ meddling, Anne and her children moved to the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now New York City), homesteading on Long Island Sound.

One afternoon in the summer of 1643, Anne’s family was attacked by Native American Siwanoy warriors at their home. Fifteen people including Anne were axed to death, their bodies burned.

List of site sources >>>


Assista o vídeo: 13 October 2021 (Janeiro 2022).